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Semester One Review Guide Church History


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What were the main attractions of the pre-Constantine Church?
a."power of the Holy Spirit" b. God's love given equally to all regardless of social standing c. women and slaves were considered as deserving of respect as men d. women as well as men were understood to have rights in marriage e. men and women were expected to be faithful to their spouses f. Christians offered hope, love, and practical assistance in dealing with misfortune
Why has God chosen us?
We have been anointed by God to provide other with that which is most necessary for life--God's love. We were chosen as we were created, as one. We are chosen because we share in the human nature in which Jesus chose to share.
Why do we need the Church
The Church is necessary for salvation; outside of the Church there is no salvation.
What happened to Christianity when the barbarian invasions swept Europe?
The image of the Church as the city of God took on new importance. Christian faith became a sign and means of civilization
How did the lapsed Christians present a problem for the early Church?
The lapsed Christians were those who gave in to Decius's demands. They offered sacrifices to the pagan gods. Others falsified certificates without actually offering sacrifices. When the lapsed Christians were readmitted, many bishops were upset
What does the priesthood of the baptized call all Christians to?
Every Christian, male or female, religious, lay, or ordained is called to consecrate the world to God in his or her daily life. Every Christian is called to carry God's presence, forgiveness, healing & support to the world.
What did Irenaeus contribute to the Church?
Outlined several beliefs which have remained central to Catholic theoglogy: a. human beings are good. We have been created in God's image & given freedom so that we might draw ever closer to perfection b. What we do with our bodies is significant to our relationship with God c. Human progress is part of God's plan for creation
What is the Catholic Church's understanding of religious and scientific truth?
Both religious truth & scientific truth are objective. They come from outside of us; we can't shape them to suit ourselves. Both help us to order our lives so that we will be in harmony with the world around us. Religious truth does not deny scientific truth, but it does carry us beyond scientific truth
As Roman civilization crumbled, how was the Church viewed?
The hope of many of the conquered and the guardian of order and justice
Where did the early Christians first teach about Jesus Christ?
Christianity was initially shared with Gentiles in the marketplace & in casual conversations
According to the Council of Trent, what does membership in the Church depend on?
both faith & works
What can we say about the Church's basic structure?
Jesus established the basic structure for the Church when he chose the 12 apostles. The basic structure is an essential part of the Church's identity
What is dogma?
Dogmas are truths which we believe have been specifically revealed by God
What are the four marks of the Church & what do they mean?
The Church is one-because of the unity in the Trinity of one God, the Father, the Son & the Holy Spirit. It is one because of its founder, Jesus Christ who came to restore unity among all people & between all. The Church is Holy-it is the body of Christ--the Holy One of God. It is holy because the Holy Spirit dwells within it. It is holy or set apart from the rest of creation because of its intimate connection to God. The Church is Catholic-"universal." It is whole, complete. It is for all people. The Church is Apostolic-it has been sent into the world by Christ. It is built upon the foundation of the apostles who were appointed by Jesus
Describe what the Council of Trent accomplished?
Led to a predominant image of the Church as Mother, offering care & protection to her children. Linked orthodoxy with uniformity, requiring Catholics everywhere to do & say the same things with respect to faith. Word of God must be interpreted by the Church, & more explicity by the bishops of the Church in order that it might be properly understood & applied. Outlined the way Catholic must lvie & the faith that they must profess. Declared marriages b/w Catholics & non-Catholics to be invalid
What are doctrines?
Doctrines are official teachings of the Church
Is the Church the culmination of salvation history?
What is the Church ethic?
What are the criteria for determining the sacredness of particular letters, gospels, and instructions and including them in the canon?
There are three main criteria used to determine the sacredness of a particular book: apostolic authorship, orthodox content & catholicity
Why did the people of the Roman Empire originally reject Christianity?
Christiany was thought to be anti-social, barbaric & cannibalistic. Christians refused to participate in social events because it involved worship of Roman gods. it was widely known that Christians gathered every week to celebrate an agape. Christans called all other Christians even their spouses-"brother" and "sister," which led to rumors that Christians met for regular orgies. It was even rejected because the scriptures were "poorly written" and showed a lack of literary finesse
What things in the Church cannot and will not change?
The church has a permanent constitution, permanent body of dogma, and permanent ethic
What did Clement of Alexandria contribute to the Church?
a. attempted to establish connections b/w Christianity & Greek philosophy b. Helped establish a way of thinking which continues to characterize Catholic thought & theology, a way of thinking which sees faith & reason as part of a single whole
What did the Council of Jerusalem decree?
a. Gentile Christians did not have to follow the entire Jewish Law. b. There are 3 basic laws they needed to keep: i. no Christian should eat meet that has been sacrificed to idols because that would give honor to false gods. ii. no Christians should eat the meat of strangled animals or eat blood. iii. all Christians must avoid illicit sexual activities c. Christianity was a religion of the body & not just the spirit
What was the law of the New Testament?
idk if right. The law of the NT gave the Israelites the continued strength to live as a people. It held the Isrealite community together so that together they could do what none could do alone
What did Tertullian contribute to the Church?
a. insisted that the Church is the rightful owner of scripture. b. heretics have no right to use them or to interpret them in a way that contradicts the Church
How should we view our individual personalities?
Our individual personalities are maintained even after a person has been incorporated into the body of Christ. Our individual personalities are a means of uniting us.
What is faith?
Faith is contact with the mystery of God. Faith begins as a freely given gift from God
What did the Clunaic reformers of the Middle Ages work for?
After reforming & reordering hundreds of monastic communities many Clunaics hoped for a general reform of the Church along similar lines. A primary goal: to free the Church from its obligations to kings & nobles. A second goal: to enforce clerical celibacy so Church positions couldn't be hereditary & Church property could not be dissipated by heirs. Also stressed the importance of obedience within the Church
What does the Catholic Church teach about Scripture and Tradition?
Scripture is inerrant because it is the word of God, but its the word of God expressed in human words. It has been shaped & limited by human weaknesses & limitations. Scripture alone will not necessarily lead us to the truth. Tradition of Church is all of the ways in which we have passed on our understanding: our creeds, doctrines, gov'tal structure, liturgies & patterns of prayer & service. These are the things that truly make our faith apostolic & create continuity between teh apostles' understanding of Jesus & our own understanding of Jesus
What does Apostolic succession require?
That no bishop teach anything contrary to what was passed on to him by his predecessors
What is a heretic?
A heretic is someone who has chosen to divide Christianity & make it into something that it is not. Heretics are people who have separated themselves from the Church because they are unwilling to organize their lives in accordance with the truth which the Church teaches.
How should the interpretation of Scripture be conducted?
Whenever we are reading any scriptural book or passage we must determine the intentions of the authors. It is also necessary to consider the literary form of the book or passage . We must consider the historical period in which the text was written. We need to read each individual passage & book in the context of the canon as a whole
Describe the baptized soul?
Baptism makes a person a part of the body of Christ--a partaker of the divine nature. A baptized person's potential is determined by the grace of Christ. Once people have been baptized, their whole being is defined first & foremost by the fact that they belong to God. Their identity as members of the People of God is more important to who they are & to what they do than their gender, family, talents, race, or anything else that shapes them.
What was the Edict of Milan
a letter signed by Constantine and Licinius granting religious toleration issued in 313
How is the Church a mystery?
The Church is a mystery, because it holds apparent opposites togther. It is both part of the world and tempted by sin and apart from the world and shaped by grace.
What does the Greek word for Church (ekklesia) mean?
to call out of
What is salvation history?
Salvation history tells the long story of humanity's return to unity with God & with one another
Who is the bride of Christ
The Church
What did Origen contribute to the Church?
a. sought to explain Christian doctrine to the pagans & to relate Christian theology to pagan philosophy b. outlined those things which were essential to Christianity: i. there is only one God who is creater & ruler of the entire universe ii. Jesus Christ is Son of God and he became humam in his Incarnation, he also remained fully divine iii. Holy Spirit shares in the glory & divinity of the Father & Son iv. There will be a final judgement & a final resurrection of the body v. Christians must not change or alter the teachings of the apostles in any way, but in those areas for which there was no specific apostolic teaching, Christians were free to speculate
What does it mean to be holy?
To be set apart
What is the Magisterium?
the offical teacher of Scripture and Tradition
What does it mean to rule as Jesus did?
Christians are to rule as Jesus did, through service & self-sacrifice. We are called to imiate God who committed himself to humanity even when humanity offered nothing in return.
Who is a prophet?
A prophet is someone through whom the will of God is made known. Prophets speak & live the truth in such a way that others are able to hear & recognize God & God's will for the world
Describe Charlemagne.
He used the Church for his own ends. He thought the Chruch as a branch of his gov't passing a number of laws regarding the life of the Church. Conquered people were given a choice of Baptism or death. He reiterated that Sunday was to be a day of rest & wroship. Supported a revival & reform of Church schools. Saw the Church as a sheepfold which protected but also confined & controlled the sheep

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