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Chapter 13 History christina fab!


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Stephen F. Austin
son of Moses Austin;
American Intermediary who received sizable land grants from Mexico in return for promising to bring settlers;
a young immigrant from Missouri who established the first legal American settlement in Texas (1822);
effective in recruiting American immigrants to TX and creating centers of power that competed with the Mexican Government
General Santa Anna
mid-1830s: seized control as a dictator to impose a conservative and autocratic regime on the nation;
led an army into TX and annihilated the Alamo
Alamo and Goliad
Santa Anna annilhilated an American garrison at the Alamo in San Antonio, and then at Goliad when the Mexicans executed most of the force after it had surrendured
Battle of San Jacinto
General Sam Houston got a small force together of soldiers fleeing Santa Anna (they were fleeing eastward toward Louisianna), and he defeated Santa Anna's Mexican army and took Santa Anna prisoner in retribution of the Alamo and Goliad;
Santa Anna, under pressure, signed a treaty giving Texas independence
Sam Houston
led a small force to the Battle of San Jacinto that received Texas' Independence
Manifest Destiny
an ideology with which advocates of expansion justified their goals;
reflected both the pride of American nationalism and the idealistic vision of social perfection;
America was destined (by God and by history) to expand its boundaries over a vast area, an area that included but was not necessarily restricted to, the continent of North America;
an altruistic attempt to expand American liberty to a new realm
Oregon Boundary Dispute
Both Britain and the United States claimed sovereignty in the region (Brits on the basis of explorations in the 1790s by George Vancouver; the Americans by simultaneous claims by Robert Gray)
chose to do a "joint occupation;"
ended up setting the boundary at the 49th parallel, where it remains today
Election of 1844
Whig: Henry Clay
Democrat: James K. Polk = "darkhorse"
Liberty Party: James G. Birney

both (clay and van buren) took a stand on the annexation of Texas (both favored it, but only with the consent of Mexico..aka it meant nothing since Mexico wouldn't likely do that)
James K. Polk
the first "dark horse" to win the presidential nomination for the democratic party;
14 years he had been the representative for Tennessee in the House of Reps;
he combined the Oregon and TX questions hoping to appeal to North and South;
in office, resolved Oregon question by having the 49th parallel be the northern boundary of the US
Henry Clay
believed no compromise would work unless it settled everything;
took several originally separate measures and combined them into a single piece of legislation with five provisions
Annexation of Texas
as he was leaving office, John Taylor made a lame-duck approval of an annexation treaty for TX in February 1845;
he just assumed that since Polk was elected and it was the same party that it would be okay dokay for him to accept TX into the Union
Oregon Treaty of 1846
the treaty that fixed the northern boundary of the US at the 49th parallel;
thanks to POLK!
Wilmot Proviso
Pennsylvania representative David Wilmot who introduced an amendment to the appropration bill that would have prohibited slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico;
passed in house but failed in senate
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
ended the Mexican-American War;
Nicholas Trist sent by Polk;
Mexico agreed to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledged the Rio Grande as the boundary of TX; the US promised to take over Mexico's debts to the citizens of the new territories against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15...
this wasn't exactly what Polk wanted, but he had to accept it
Zachary Taylor
Polk sent him to the Nueces line to protect TX against a possible invasion;

nominated for the election of 1848 Whig Party = military hero WINS ELECTION

said that statehood processes should be sped up so that the states could decide about slavery

died suddenly from over-eating; Millard Fillmore took over
Gold Rush
1848: James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's sawmills in the Sierra Nevadas

non-Indian population increased 20-fold

"forty-niners" the nickname of migrants: 95% men...attracted the Chinese

created labor shortage in CA, creating work for Chinese immigrants...overt exploitation of Indians ("Indian Hunters")

became a factor putting pressure on the US to resolve the staus of the territories and slavery
John C. Calhoun
insisted that the North grant the South equal rights in the territories, that it agree to observe the laws concerning fugitive slaves, that it cease attacking slavery, and that it accept an amendment guaranteeing a balance of power between the sections..dual president election with veto power for both

"seventh of march address"
Stephen A. Douglas
37-year-old democratic Illinois senator who was a spokesman for the economic needs of his section -- construction of railroads;
broke up the "omnibus bill" that Clay had envisioned and introduced a series of separate measures to be voted on individually

big on transcontinental railroad-destroyed compromise of 1850 by introducing Nebraska...Nebraska Kansas Act

congressional elections of 1858- douglas v. lincoln (douglas won)
popular sovereignty
a democratic way of deciding whether a state would be slave-holding or free...recommended by Lewis Cass
Compromise of 1850
Clay, Calhoun, and Webster all tried to do make one
then, came Seward, Davis, and Douglas

benefited from prosperity from expanding foreign trade, flow of gold, and boom in RR construction

Douglas separated the omnibus bill and made each one votable on its own

"a triumph of self-interst that did not resolve the underlying problems"
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
the slaves have to be returned
Harriet Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
a book that sold 300,000 copies; big for the abolitionist movement; got more people invovled
Franklin Pierce
NH democrat in the 1852 election
-avoided issue of slavery
-northern opposition to Fugitive Slave Act; uprisings in Boston
-"Young America" expanding america and getting rid of slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Doublas wanted the transcontinental RR in his territory so he made Nebraska but the South opposed it because it would "prepare the way for a new free state," so he inserted a provision that the status of slavery in the new territory would be determined by popular sovereignty
-also he specifically repealed the antislavery provision of the Missouri Compromise and divided the area into Nebraska and Kansas
-unanimous support
Republican Party (1854)
American or Know-Nothing Party
Lecompton Constitution
Bleeding Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas
John Brown
The caning of Senator Charles Sumner
James Buchanan
John C. Fremont
Election of 1856
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
Roger B. Taney
Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
Freeport Doctrine
Harpers Ferry
Election of 1860
John C. Breckinridge
John Bell
Five Provisions of Clay's compromise
1. California be admitted as a free state
2. that in the rest of the lands acquired from Mexico, they would choose the slave states by popular vote
3. that Texas uield in its boundary dispute with New Mexico and that the federal government compensate it by taking over its public debt
4. that the slave trade, but not slavery itself, be abolished in the District of Columbia
5. that a new and more effective fugitive slave law be passed

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