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history final terms


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sans culottes
means w/o breeches, meaning traders & laboring poor who wore trousers not knee breeches of aristocracy or upper middle class,
have economic interests b/c of rapid inflat, unemployment, food shortages. they accepted private property but believed in small business, decent wages & economic justice. sans culottes women defended their culture & religious beliefs
a collection of govt policies for the regulation of economic activities, esp commercial activities by & for the state
the system usu involved colonies which had a purpose to provide raw materials for the mother country
the colonies act as a market in which products from the market country can be sold
these colonies only exist to support the mother country
this helped incr the bullion and other needed items
mixed Spanish and african heritage
went thru systematic insubordinat b/c Spanish theories of racial purity & used European blood for social status
loyalty & devotion to one's own country, esp placing it above others. it evolved from cultural unity manifesting in a common language, history and territory. nationalists believed every nation had the rt to exist in freedom & to dev its character & spirit. benefits of this idea united ppl of common traditions, loyalties & language which transcended local interests & class differences
manifest destiny
19th cent belief & justificat for westwd expansion was a concept which states that God had foreordained the nation to cover the entire continent
this led to settlement of diverse ppl & slavery
based on principal ideas of liberalism & equality. Liberalism demanded representative govt & equality before the law. Idea of liberty means indiv freedoms like freedom of press, speech, assembly and from arbitrary arrest
throughout 18th century, Spanish owned large landed estates and plantations were made to meet needs of commercial agricult like wheat, corn and sugar
fr name of month, july where the administrat changed to moderate control, creation of peasant oriented idealogy, eliminat of church & had a constitut which establ a republic. this govt controlled a 5 mem directory govt that ruled france until napoleon came into rule in a military dictatorship
balance of power
international equilibrium of political & military forces that would discourage aggression by any combinat of states or dominat of europe by any single state. In using the great powers consisting of austria, britain, russia and france, the balance of power was used to settle their dangerous disputes at congress of vienna. there were lenient measures for france such as not having to pay for war reparations. however, the allies agreed that france owed compensat in form of territory due to successful struggle
open fields were enclosed & both large & small owners recieved their fair share after the strips were surveyed & consolidated.
landowners passed thru parliament these enclosure acts which authorized the fencing of open fields in a given village & created the division betw one's prop & others
these division of legal & surveying costs of enclosure among landowners caused peasants to sell out their share of the expenses
landless fams were affected & women were deprived of means to raise animals for market to earn money
enclosure movement created development of market oriented estate agricult & emergence of landless proletariat
modern working class
influential groups of intellectuals. philosophe is the fr wd for philosopher. philosophes brought their knowledge to others in the age of the enlightenment. fr philosophes asked questions about meaning of life, god, human nature, good & evil and cause & effect. they were percieved as the educated or enlightened public or "public" opposed to the common people called the "ppl". They were fre to write as long as they did not criticize openly the church or the state
natives of Spain or Portugal, who controlled rich export-import trade, intercolonial trade & mining industries, had economic & political dominance
economic liberalism
(laissez faire)
unrestricted private enterprise & no govt interference in economy called laissez faire. smith believed free competit & the "invisible hand" of the self regulat. market which would give all citizens a fair & equal opportunity to do what they did est. he argued that freely competitive enterprise would result in great income for everyone not only the rich. this economic liberalism promoted economic growth in Industrial Revolut
militarist, nationalist authoritarian regime like german nazi party
fascism is the total & revolutionary character of the movements of radical dictatorships
characteristics incl extreme nationalism, antipathy to socialism, glorificat of war, violent leader & military
characterized by belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imaginat, & spontaneity in art & personal life. This romantic movement was present in early 17th cent & was part revolt of classicism & enlightenment. It infl music to realize goals of free expression & emotional intensity & expanded the size of orch adding winds, brass, & strings
middle class
govt in which rulers sought to attain absolute or complete power.
absolutist rulers in europe were usually called monarchy
these rulers created new state bureaucracies to enhance their power & to direct the economic life of the country in their interests
they regulated religious sects abolished liberties and acquired total control over the state
govt in which one political party monopolizes power & exercises complete authority over ppl & their activities, all parts of life incl economic, social, political, religious & educational are controlled by the state
constitutional monarchy
govt in which rulers or monarchs could not rule at will but had to respect representative bodies & follow established constitutional policies
the rulers tried to seek freedom from nobility & traditional representative bodies called estates or parliament which were usually dominated by nobility
constitutional monarchy consisted of the limitation of the state by law
this type of govt restricted monarchy & was meant to eliminate absolutism, with parliament & representative bodies
ppl of Spanish blood born in the New World
open field sys
division of land to be cultivated by the peasants itno a few large fields that in turn were cut up into long narrow strips. these fields and strips were not enclosed. open field sys of village of agricult dev by euro peasants was the greatest accomplishment of medieval agricult. sometimes peasants held number of strips scattered & other lands were owned by nobility, clergy & wealthy townsmen plowing, sowing, & harvesting while nobility & clergy did nothing but own the land
lenin: NEP-allowed private enterprise while state controlled large industries based on capitalism & socialism, limit economic freedom in order to rebuild the economy

Stalin: socialism, harsh dictatorship, eliminated all rivals, had secret police and spies, had series of 5 yr plans, which called for collectivizat which forced consolidat of indiv peasant farms into large, state controlled enterprises, made kulaks suffer b/c they were better off peasants were stripped of land & livestock & not permitted to join collective farms & were starved or sent to forced labor camps, although his 5 yr plans created rapid industrial growth it led firm labor discipline and introd of foreign engineers
regarded tradit as basic source of human institutions where metternich believed in preserving monarchy, bureaucracy & aristocracy
total war
need for mobilizing entire societies & economies & greatly incr power of govt in the west, war to end all war brought a fragile truce(t of v) this war took away monarchy & let national determination triumph
led to bolshevik revolut & authoritarian regimes
putting out sys
had two main participants the merchant capitalist & rural worker
merchant loaned or "put out" raw materials to several cottage workers
the workers processed raw materials and returned finished products to merchants. merchants paid workers by pieces & sold the finished products.
putting out sys had competitive advantages b/c rural labor worked for low wages
home front
planned economy to wage total war, need to ration & distribute raw materials, produce substitutes to make explosives w/rubber & nitrates added to g war machine, recycling of everything to physical need, mobilizat for total war wher all agricult, industry & labor must be used for war, division of labor where in g, men ages 17 to 60 had to wk for the war effort while women wked in factories
mixed spanish & indian backgd went thru systematic insubordinat b/c of the Spanish theories of racial purity & used European blood for social status
social darwinism
theory of brutal competit among races causing the Europeans, mainly the dominant white race to seize colonies that had inferior ppl
this dev harsh racial doctrines & supported imperialist expansion
system in which one group usu a nation has control over another area or people called a colony. The colony is usu dependent on the controlling nation`
majority, ruled by Lenin, called the reds, establ a radical regime & destroyed capitalist instituts, was successful in a time where democracy led to anarchy b/c it limited civil liberties and was not understood
bolsheviks appealed to the those exhausted by war like the soldiers and urban workers, had a strategic army that controlled the center whereas whites were on the fringes
bolsheviks mobilized the home front & seized grain from peasants intro rationing, nationalized all banks & industry & required everyone to work
policy of a nation extending its power to dominate other nations using force or indirect economic & political control. this policy was thought to be economically profitable & helped provide outlets for surplus capitals
this led to rivalry & competit
were based on ideas of planning, greater economic equality, & state control of property. early fr socialists argued the govt should organize economy not laissez faire(free competit) socialists had desire to help the poor & believed the poor & rich should be near other economically. they felt private prop should be regulated or abolished or replaced by state ownership
marxist communism
argued interests of the middle ages & those of industrial working class are inevitably opposed to each other(class struggle)
marx felt one class has always exploited the other & w/industry more split where there was a middle class(bourgeoisie) & modern working class(proletariat)
he feltt that the proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie in a violent revolut.
communism would repla capitalism
minority, the whites, opposed bolsheviks, operated on the fringes due the fact that they did not all unite under the same progressive democratic banner
grew out of extreme nationalism & racism. It supported a dictatorship which mobilized the economy & persecuted the Jewish pop. nazism had an unlimited control on german society & placed power in the lead, Adolf Hitler

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