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Ch. 31 Biology OLSH

vocab words for Chapter 31

Terms

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mesophyll
in leaves, the tissue where photosynthesis occurs
cuticle/cutin
a waxy covering that prevents desiccarion
heartwood
darker wood in the center of a tree
pit
thin, porous area of the cell wall
tendril
a specialized leaf found in many vines that takes on a coiled appearance
sink
the place where a plant stored or uses sugars
net venation
in plant leaves the repeated branching of veins to form a network of smaller veins
parenchyma
in plants, the living tissue of the ground system, consisting of cells with thin cell walls
bark
the protective outside sovering of woody plants, consists of cork, cork cambium, phloem, cortex, and vascualr cambium
blade
the broad, flat portion of a typical leaf
cork
dead cells that provide protection and prevent water loss
micronutrients
plant cells use other minerals, such as manganese, in smaller amounts
annual ring
a yearly growth ring in a woody plant
primary growth
the tissue produced by apical meristems in plants
vein
transports water
epidermis
a layer of cells that forms a continuous sheet over the outer surface of a plant or animal
fibrous root system
the primary root does not become large. Instead, numerous small roots develop and branch
springwood
in woody plants, secondary xylem with cells that are wide and thin walled the first wood of a growing season
simple leaf
a leaf with only one blade
meristem
the growing region in plants
compound leaf
a type of leaf in which the blade is divided into leaflets
venation
the arrangement of veins in a leaf
cohension-tension theory
states that water is able to move up the stem xylem due to the strong attraction of water molecules to each other
wood
secondary xylem
intercalary meristem
a region of plant tissue that allow grass leaves to quickly regrow
sieve plate
a region at the end of the sieve tube member through which compunds move from cell to cell
transpiration
the evaporation of water through stomota
guard cell
one of two cell bordering a stomota, each of which has flexiblecell walls that regulate gas and water exchange
summerwood
in woody plants, secondary xylem cells that are small and thick walled and that are produced in hot, dry summers
sieve tube member
the conducting cell of angiosperm phloem
dermal tissue system
one type of plant tissue system which forms the outer covering of plants
sclerenchyma
the tissue of the ground system that supports and strenghtens the plant
vascualar cambium
the lateral meristem in a plant that produces assitional vascular tissue
petiole
in leaves the structure that arraches blade and stem
vessel
in plants, a structure formed by stacked vessel elements
internode
one of the different segments of a stem
vascular tissue system
the system that includes the xylem and phloem tissues of plants
endodermis
the innermost cylinder of the cortex
sieve tube
structure formed by stacked sieve tube members
bud
structure that develops on the stem at the point of attachment of each leaf
macronutrients
plant cells use some minerals, such as nitrogen and potassuim, in large amounts, and required in large amounts
secondary growth
the tissue produced by lateral meristems of plants
apical meristem
the growing region at the tips of stems and roots in plants
palisade mesophyll
in plants a layer of mesophyll directly beneath the upper epidermis where most photosynthesis takes place
pressure-flow hypothesis
an explanation of the movement of sugars in the phloem of plants
ground tissue system
one type of plant tissue system, made up of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma
root hair
an extension of the epidermis
parallel venation
in plants the arrangement of several main veins parallel to each other
cork cambium
the lateral meristem of a plant, produces cork
spongy mesophyll
a mesophyll of irregularly shaped cells surrounded by air spaces that allow oxygen, carbon dioxide and water to duffuse into and out of the leaf
vessel element
an elongated, water conducting plant cell wall with slanting ends and holes through which water can pass
sapwood
lighter-colored wood near the outside of a tree trunk active in transporting sap; tissue of the secondary xylem system
tracheid
a long, thick wall with tapering ends, forming part of the xylem tissue of plants
lateral meristem
in plants, a growing region that increases the diameter of roots and stems
adventitious roots
specialized roots that grow from stems and leaves
pith
the plant tissue located in the center of the stem
cortex
located inside the epidermis stores food
pericycle
outermost layer or layers of the central vascular tissues
source
the place where sugars are made in a plant
translocation
a mutation in which a broken piece of chromosomes attaches to a nonhomologous chromosomes movement of organic molecules in plant tissues
collenchyma
plant tissue made up of elongated cells with unevenly thickened, flexible walls
root cap
a shield covering the apical meristem
bud scale
a modified leaf that forms a protective covering for a bud until it opens
node
the end of the internode where one or more leaves are attached
leaflet
one of the divisions of a blade

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