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Animal GI Tract


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Basic functions of the GI tract
Prehension (grasping of food with lips)
Chemical digestion of food
Absorption of nutrients and water
Elimination of wastes
How many pairs of salivary glands do animals have ?
4 types of teeth
Incisors - teeth in front (rostral)
Canines - longer and pointed
Premolars - large, used for grinding
Molars - behind premolars
Tooth surfaces
Lingual - inner surface of lower arcade
Palatal - inner surface of upper arcade
Labial - lips (outer surface)
Buccal - outer surface of caudal (upper and lower)
Dental Formulas
dog/pup i3/3, c1/1, p3/3
dog-adult I3/3,C1/1,P4/4,M2/3
kitten i3/3,c1/1,m2/3
cat-adult I3/3,C1/1,P3/2, M1/1
Ruminant and Equine teeth
Equine - adult I3/3, C1/1, P3-4/3, M3/3
Cows I0/3 C0/1, P3/3 M3/3
No upper incisors or canines, have a dental pad
Carnassial teeth
in dogs, first lower molar and 4th upper premolar - large teeth abcess of roots tend to rupture underneath the eyes
extends from oral cavity to stomach
Longitudinal mm contract in front of food bolus, widening lumen for food to travel through
Circular mm contract behnd food pushing food down - peristalsis
Which animals can't vomit?
Rabbits and horses valve is so strong ( fold in stomach against esophagus)
4 compartments of ruminant stomach
abomasum - true stomach
How is ruminant digestive process different?
swallow their food and bring it back up to chew it some more - rumination or "chewing their cud"
Hardware disease
sharp objects may be swallowed and puncture wall of reticulum
What is eructation and why is it so important?
menas of eliminating built up C)2 and methane gas from rumen. Important bc it prevents bloat, which can be fatal
What happens in the rumen?
Plant material is fermented by bacterial and protozoal enzymes, same enzymes as in monogastric body, but monos can't digest plant material
How is young ruminant stomach different from adult?
functions as monogastric
rumen and reticulum are non-functioning
little or no fermentation takes place while nursing
Parts of monogastric stomach
WHich parts of the stomach are relaxing and contracting during digestion
Fundus and body - relaxes when food is swallowed, allows to fill
Body - contracts to help mix food
Antrum - contractions increase when food is swallowed, mix and grind food
Functions of gastrin and mucus
gastrin - controls HCL production, also inhibits muscle contractions of fundus - relaxation and filling of stomach
mucus- produced by gastric glands - helps protect stomach lining
How is HCl secretion controlled?
When pH of stomach becomes less than 3, gastrin release is inhibited, does not bind with receptor, decreased Hcl production; parietal cells
3 parts of the small intestine
Small intestine mucosa
villi-millions of fingerlike projections on inner wall of small intestine
microvilli - millions of small villi on each villus
crypts-invaginations that aid in absorption
2 types of contractions that take place in the small intestine
Peristaltic - coordination bt longitudinal and circular mm
Segmented - mix intestinal contents and slow movements of ingesta
What is ileus?
condition brought on by disease and stress that causes a decrease in peristaltic waves - common in horses after surgery or illness
What are carbs, proteins and fats broken down into before being absorbed?
carbs-amylase breaks down carbs into disaccharides, then broken into monosacs
protein is broken down into amino acids or dipeptides
fat is broken down into emulsification - globules -micelles
Why does a sudden change from hard to soft food cause diarrhea in animals?
not enough sucrase.
What two sections make up the large intestine?
HOw is the GI tract of hindgut fermentors different?
horses, rabbits, GP, rat, pigs - colon and secum are well-developed in these species, fermentation occurs here.
What two organs located outside of the GI tract are involved in digestion?
What is the main function of the liver?
filters out some materials absorbed by the GI tract before they reach systemic circulation, produces blood proteins such as albumin, provides glucose to the body
What is the function of the gallbladder?
stores bile until it is needed (horses have no gallbladder)

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