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Animal Health 8


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What are 6 effects of parasite infection?
1. Compete for nutrients
2. Cause anemia (suck blood)
3. Physical obstruction
4. Tissue destruction
5. Release toxins
6. Spread disease
What are the three types of of Roundworms (scientific names)
1. Toxocara canis
2. Toxocara cati
3. Toxocara leonina
What are the 3 modes of transmission of roundworms?
1. Placenta
2. Colostrum
3. ingestion (can survive in soil for years)
Roundworm is the largest or smallest of all internal parasites?
Where does Roundworm reside in the body?
Adults are in sm intestine
Roundworms affect what kind of animals (including their age group)?
Virtually all neonatal puppies and kittens
Adult animals are immune to this type of internal parasite.
Roundworms. Therefor primarily a problem in young animals
What are the 4 signs of Roundworms?
1. Poor growth and condition
2. Pot bellied
3. Dull, dry hair coat
4. +/- diarrhea and vomiting
How does one diagnosis roundworm infestation?
1. Assume infection
2. Clinical signs
3. See parasites in feces or vomit
4. Fecal exam
What are the two treatments for roundworm?
1. Piperazine
*2. Pyrantel (strongid)
What are the 3 public health significances of roundworm?
*1. Visceral larval migrans (toxocarosis)
2. Primarily in young children ingesting contaminated soil
3. Whelping areas highly contaminated
What are the three types of Hookworm?
*1. Ancylostoma caninum
2. Ancylostoma tubaeforme
3. Uncinaria stenocephalus
What are the 3 modes of transmission of Hookworm?
1. Ingestion
2. Intrauterine
3. Skin penetration
Where are adult hookworms found in the body?
Small intestine
What are two signs of hookworms?
1. Anemia
2. Weak, pale, unthrifty mucous membranes
Which internal parasite is a primary problem in young puppies w/large exposure?
Hookworm can deplete the host of up to how much blood/adult worm/day?
How does one diagnos hookworm?
1. Assume infection
2. Clinical signs
3. Fecal exam
What is the type of whipworm called?
Trichuris vulpis
How is whipworm transmitted?
Ingestion: eggs may survive for years in soil
Where are adult whipworms found in the body?
Cecum and colon
What are the two signs of whipworm?
1. Usually none
2. If large load- weight loss and bloody diarrhea
How does one diagnos whipworm?
Fecal exam
What are the two types of tapeworm?
*1. Diphlydium caninum
2. Taenia taeniaformis
What are the two ways Diplydium caninum (Tapeworm type) transmitted? What is the intermediate host?
Ingestion of fleas and lice
****Fleas are the intermediate hosts
How is Taenia taeniaformis (type of Tapeworm) transmitted?
Ingestion of raw meats and fish
What are the five signs of tapeworm?
1. Generally none
2. "Scooting"
3. Tail rubbing
4. Diarrhea
5. Flatulence
How does one diagnos tapeworm (2 ways)?
1. See segments around anus and in feces
2. Fecal exam
What are two ways of to control tapeworm?
1. Flea control
2. Avoid raw meat and fish
What is the type of heartworm called?
Dirofilaria immitis
Which internal parasite is distributed worldwide?
What is the only commonly infected mammal and therefor primary resevoir of hearworm?
What is the only living organism that is able to incubate D. immitis (heartworm) to its infective form and then transmit it to new doggy host?
What is the life cycle of heartworm?
1. Dog w/microfilaria in blood
2. Mosquito ingestion
3. Microfilariae develop into infective larvae in mosquito (~3weeks)
4. Mosquito bites a dog, infecting it w/larvae
5. Larvae develop in dog and end up in heart (2-3months)
6. Adults in heart copulate and produce eggs
7. Eggs develop into microfilariae
8. Microfilariae in bloodstream....cylce repeats
What are three signs of heartworm?
1. Cough
2. Excercise intolerance
3. Ascites (abdominal swelling due to fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity)
What type of dog is heartworm seen most in?
Adult dogs w/chronic or recurrent infections
What are 2 ways to diagnos heartworm?
1. Identify microfilariae
2. Antigen and antibody testing
What are two ways to treat heartworm?
1. Elimination of adults
2. Elimination of microfilariae
What are 3 ways to prevent heartworm in microfilariae negative dogs?
1. Ivermectin: kills microfilariae/infective larvae
2. Milbemycin oxime (Interceptor)
3. Other Preventatives
What is the scientific name for ear mites?
Otodectes cynotis
What are the 3 facts of ear mites (include how its spread)?
*1. Highly contagious
2. Direct contact
3. Not species specific
What are five signs of ear mites?
*1. Intense itching (pruritis)
2. Ear scratching
3. Head shaking
4. Trauma to back of ears and head from scratching
5. Dry, dark, waxy exudate in ear canals
What are three ways to diagnos ear mites?
1. Clinical signs
2. Exudate
3. See adults w/otoscope
What are the two treatments for ear mites?
1. Various
2. Tresaderm + ivermectin
What is the cause of Demodecosis (ie demodectic mange)?
Demodex canis (mite)
Is Demodex canis a normal inhabitant of canine skin?
Yes, in small numbers
When does demodecosis (mange) occur?
When large numbers of mites colonize the hair follicles and skin.
What are the two types of mange?
1. Localized
2. Generalized
Where is localized demodectic mange typically found? What's it look like?
Around the face (eyes, lips). One to several areas of mild redness (erythema) and hair loos (alopecia)
Does localized mange typically induce pruritic (severe itching)? What group of dog is it generally found in?
No, pruritic is not a symptom. Found in young dogs (3-12months)
How can localized demodectic mange treated?
It's usually self limiting and will heal spontaneously
What is one of the most sever canine skin diseases?
Generalized demodectic mange; it can be fatel
What group of dogs is Generalized demodectic mange typically found in?
Young dogs
How does generalized demodectic mange usually start out?
Often begins as localized form but instead of getting better, it gets worse and spreads to head, legs and trunk; lesions coalesce to form plaques
Generalized mange itself is not the only issue in an infected host, what often happens with the lesions demodectic mange causes?
Lesions often have a secondary infection by bacteria
What do chronic lesions caused by generalized demodectic mange look like?
Crusting, infected, thickened and hemorrhagic
What do most dogs with Demodectic mange also have?
Immunodeficiency problems.
What are two ways to diagnos generalized demodectic mange?
1. Clinical sings
*2. Skin scrapings
What is the treatment for generalized demodectic mange?
What causes Canine Scabies (Sarcoptic mange)?
Sarcoptes scabei var canis (mite)....ugh, what kind scientific name is this!
How is Canine scabies (Sarcoptic mange) transmitted?
Direct contact
Is canine scabies (mange) highly contagious? Is it host specific? How long can the mites survive off host?
Highly contagious. It is host specific. Mites can only live for several hours off host
Describe the activity of the female sarcoptic scabei var canis mite
She burrows into epidermis, lays 2-3 eggs/day, burrows at a rate of 2-3mm/day and dies in 2-4weeks
What are four clinical signs of canine scabies (sarcoptic mange)?
*1. Intense pruritis: ears and elbows first, but can affect any area of skin
2. Ear scratching
3. Head shaking
4. Dermatitis consisting of erythema (redness), papules, alopecia, and hemorrhagic crusts
What are five ways to diagnos canine scabies (sarcoptic mange)?
1. Skin scrapings
2. Fecal material
3. Eggs
4. Adult mites
5. Biopsy
What are three ways to treat canine scabies (sarcoptic mange)?
1. Acaricidal dips
2. ivermectin
3. +/- steroids to tx pruritis
What are two public health issues from canine scabies (sarcoptic mange)?
1. Temporary infection of humans (mostly around belt-line); mites die quickly but itching and lesions may last weeks
2. Highly contagious to other dogs
What causes Feline scabies?
Notoedres cati
How does Feline scabies spread on the cat?
Ear pinna to face, eyelids, neck, then to feet and perineum
What are two symptoms of Feline scabies?
*1. Intense pruritis
2. Skin becomes thickened, wrinkled and folded w/partial alopecia
What are two types of fleas?
1. Ctenocephalides canis
2. Ctenocephalides felis
*Sm, brown, wingless insects tt suck blood and feed sporadically on birds and mammals
Describe the life cycle of a flea
1. female lays eggs off host (3-18eggs/female), or eggs quickly fall off host
2. Eggs hatch in 9-200 days
3. 3rd molt produces an opaque white larva tt spins a cacoon
4. Pupates inside for 1 week- one yr
5. Adult flea breaks out & finds host
6. Fleas do not live more than 5,000 feet from infestation site
What two things do fleas play a role as intermediate host to?
1. Tapeworms
2. Flea allergy dermatitis
What may be the most common disease of dogs?
Flea allergy dermatitis
What is flea allergy dermatitis?
Hypersensitivity to flea saliva
What causes the hypersensitivity of flea allergy dermatitis?
-Haptan (incomplete antigen) in flea's saliva combines w/an adjuvant on dog/cat's skin to form a complete antigen
-This complete antigen causes hypersensitivity rxn wn dog/cat is challenged by new flea bites
What are the five clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis? (Non chronic cases)
1. Pruritis
2. Self trauma
3. Acute moist dermatitis
4. Papules/pustules
5. Crusts on lower back, base of tail, medial surfaces of hind legs and ventral pelvic area
What is a sign of chronic flea allergy dermatitis?
Skin becomes thickened, hairless, grey and folded
What are the 3 ways to prevent/treat flea allergy dermatitis?
*1. Flea control
2. Steroids
3. Hyposensitization w/flea anitgen over long periods of time (tiny amounts injected to build up immunity to antigen: only 50-75% effective which lasts forever once finished after a couple of years).

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