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Animal physiology350chapter1-4


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evolution through natural selection leading to an organism whose physio, anatomy, and behavior are matched to the demands of its enviro
a persisting spectrum of changes due to prolonged exposure to enviromental conditions such as high or low temp.
a persisting change in a specific funtion due to prolonged exposure to an environmental condition such as high or low temp.
deoxyribonucleic acid
the class of nucleic acids resposible for hereditary transmission and for the coding of amino acid sequences of proteins
a heritable alteration in genetic material
the return of ouput to the input part of a system
negative feedback
sign of the output is inverted before it is fed back to the input so as to stabilize the output
set point
point that system is to be held (homeostasis)
positive feedback
error signal is amplified and unchanged, reinforcing the original disturbance (AP, childbird, vomiting)
change in the state of a controlled system
signal inversion
sign or direction of ouput is opposite to that of input
an animal whose internal conditions tend to parallel those of the external enviro
an animal that used biochemical, physiological, behavioral, or other mechs to maintain internal homeostasis.
capable of breaking down molecular constituents
electromotive force
(emf) the potenial difference across the terminals of a battery or any other source of electric energy
affinity for electrons
a molecule having separate regions of net negative and net positive charge, so that one end acts as a positive pole and the other as a negative pole
hydrogen bonds
a weak electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen atom bound to a highly electronegative element in a molecule and another highly electronegative atom in the same or a different molecule
dielectric constant
a measure of the degree to which a substance is able to store electric charge under an applied voltage
the clustering of solvent molecules around a solute
solvation when the solvent is water
bearing both hydrophylic and hydrophobic groups
having an affinity for water
lacking an affinity for water
a microscopic particle made from an aggregation of amphipathic molecules in solution
avogadro's number (6.023 X 10*23) of molecules of an element or compound: equal to the molecular weight in grams
the number of moles of solution in a kilogram of a pure solvent
the number of moles of solute in a liter of solution
osmotic pressure
the pressure that can potentially be created by osmosis between 2 solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane
the effective osmotic pressure of a solution
colligative properties
characteristics of a solution that depend on the number of molecules in a given volume
the capacity of a substance to react with another substance; the effective concentration of an ionic species in the free state
activity coefficient
a proportionality factor obtained by dividing the effective reactive concentration of an ion (as indicated) by its properties in a solution) by its molar concentration.
hydronium ion
(H3O+) a hydrogen ion (H+) cmbined with a water molecule (H2O)
hydroxyl ion
a proton acceptor
a proton donor
having opposite characteristics; behaving as either an acid or a base
Number of H+ ions in solution
the pH of a solution at neutrality
pure water at 25 degrees celsius
a molecule carrying both negatively and positively ionized or ionizable sites
isoelectric point
pH at which the net charge of molecule is zero
optimal pH
at which there is the highest probability of catalysis
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
pH = pK' + log([H+ acceptor]/[H+ donor]) the formula for calculation of the pH of a buffer solution
(c) a unit of electric charge; equal to the amount of charge transferred in 1 second by 1 ampere (A) of current
a measure of electric charge, -96,487 C X mol-1
the flow of electric charge. A current of 1 coulomb(C) per second is called an ampere (A). By convention, the direction of current flow is the direction in which a positive charge moves (ie from the anode to the cathode)
(A) a unite of electric current equal to the current produced through a 1 ohm (V) resistance by a potential differeence of 1 volt (V); the movement of 1 coulomb (c) of charge per second
difference in potential
(V) a unit of electromotive force; the force required to induce a 1 amp current to flow thru a 1 ohm resistance
(R ) the property that hinders the flow of electric current. The unit of measure is the ohm, defined as the resistance that allows 1 amp of current to flow when a potential drop of 1 volt exists across the resistance
a unit of electrical resistance, equivalent to the resistance of a column of mercury 1mm2 in cross-section and 106 cm long
ohm's law
I = V/R; the strength of an electric current, I, varies directly as the voltage, V, and inversely as the resistance, R.
the resistance of a conductor 1 cm in length and 1 cm2 in cross-sectional area
(electrical)G a measure of the ease with which a conductor carries an electric current; the unit of measure is the siemen (S), reciprocal of the ohm
(S) the unit of electrical conductance; reciprocal of the ohm
the intrinsic ability of a substance to conduct electric current; the reciprocal of resistivity
the ability to store electric charge by electrostatic means. The unit of measure for capacitance is the farad (F), which describes the proportionality between charge stored and potential for a given voltage: C = q/V = coulombs per volt.
(F) the unit of electrical capacitance
negative electrode or pole to which positively charged ions are attracted
a positive electrode or pole to which negatively charged ions are attracted
electrical mobility
the rate at which an ionic species megrates in solution
affinity sequence
(selectivity sequency) the order of preference with which an electrostatic site will bind different species of counterions
a neutral molecule composed of three fatty acid residues esterified to glycerol; formed in animals from carbs
in reference to fatty acid chains, indicates absence of double bonds
in reference to fatty acid molecules, having some carbon-carbon double bonds
a phosphorus-containing lipid that hydrolyzes to fatty acids, glycerol, and a nitrogenous compound; makes up cell membranes
having an affinity for lipids
aldehyde of ketone derivatives of alcohol; utilized by animal cells primarily for the storage and supply of chemical energy; most important are the sugars and starches
a compound composed of a linear sequence of simple molecules or residues
a polysaccharide of plant origin (C6H10O5)n
a highly branced D-glucose polymer found in animals
peptide bonds
the center bond of the -C(0)-NH-group, created by the condensation of amino acids into peptides
a molecule consisting of a linear array of amino acid residues. Protein molecules are made of one or more peptides: short peptide chains are called oligopetptides and long chains are polypeptides
primary structure
the sequence of amino acid residues of a polypeptide chain
secondary structure
the repeating conformation adopted by a polypeptide segment (eg alpha helix)
teriary structure
the ways in which a polypeptide chain is folded or bent to produce the overall conformation of the molecule
quaternary structure
the characteristic way in which the subunits of a protein containing more than one polypeptide chain are combined
alpha helix
helical secondary structure of many porteins in which each NH group is hydrogen-bonded to a CO group at a distance equivalent to three amino acid residues; the helix makes a complete turn for each 3.6 residues
beta pleated sheet
a protein secondary structure in which two or more distinct amino acid chains lie side by side, held together by hydrogen bonds
van der waals forces
the close-range, relatively weak attraction exhibited between atoms and molecules with hydrophobic properties
disulfide linkage
a bond between sulfide groups that determines protein tertiary structure by linking together portions of polypeptide chains
alteration of destruction of the normal nature of a substance by chemical or physical means
molecular chaperones
a family of proteins that features prominently in protein folding and the preservation of the complexly folded state of proteins
ribonucleic acid
a nucleic acid made up of adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, ribose, and phosphoric acid, responsible for the transcription of DNA and its translation into protein
nucleic acids
nucleotide polymers of high molecular weight
a component of nucleic acids, made up of a purine or pyrimidine base, a ribose or deoxyribose sugar, and a phosphate group
triphosphodiester linkages
in ATP, when broken release energy for enerdergonic reactions
the formation of an RNA chain of a complementary base sequence from the informational base sequence of DNA
messenger RNA
(mRNA) a type of RNA that is responsible for transmission of the informational base sequence of DNA to the ribosomes
the totality of physical and chemical processes in anabolism, catabolism, and cell energetics
metabolic pathways
a sequence of enzymatic reactions that changes one substance into another
capacity to perform work
potential energy
stored energy that can be released to do work
kinetic energy
energy inherent in the motion of a mass
chemical energy
energy contained in the chemical bonds holding molecules together
first law of thermodynamics
the principle that energy is neither created nor lost in any process
second law of thermodynamics
the principle that all natural or spontaneous processes are accompanied by an increase in entropy
a measure of that portion of energy not available for work in a closed system; a measure of molecular randomness
free energy
the energy available to do work at a given temperature and pressure
endergonic reaction
characterized by a concomitant absorption of energy
exergonic reaction
characterized by a concomitant release of energy, often accompanied by a release of heat
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
an energy-rich nucleotide used as a common energy currency by all cells
activation energy
the energy required to bring reactant molecules to velocities sufficiently high to break or make chemical bonds
a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction
a protein with catalytic properties
a substance that is acted on by an enzyme
protein hydrolyzing
active site
the catalylic region of an enzyme molecule
enzyme activity
a measure of the catalytic potency of an enzyme: the number of substate molecules that react per minute per enzyme molecule
turnover number
a measure of the catalytic potency of an enzyme, usually given as reactions catalyzed per second
an atom, ions, or molecule tht combines with an enzyme to activate it
an organic molecule that combines with an apoenzyme to form a functioning enzyme
the portein portion of an enzyme, which combines with a coenzyme to form a functioning enzyme
the unstructured aqueous phase of the cytoplasm between the structured organelles
rate constant
(specific reaction rate) the proportionality factor by which the concentration of a reactant in an enzymatic reactin is related to the reaction rate
michaelis Menten equation
the equation describing the dependence of initial reaction velocity on substrate concentation for catalyzed reactions
Lineweaver Burk equation
straight line transformation of the michaelis-menten equation
competitive inhibition
reversible inhibition of enzyme activity caused by competition between a substate and an inhibitor for the active site of the enzyme
noncompetitive inhibition
enzyme inhibition due to alteration or destruction of the active site
allosteric site
an area of an enzyme that binds a substance other than the substrate, changing the conformation of the protein so as to alter the catalytic effectiveness of the active site.
end product inhibition
inhibition of a biosynthetic pathway by the end product of the pathway
oxygen free
require a supply of oxygen for cellular respiration
membrane-enclosed organelles where APT is produced during aerobic metabolism
the addition of electrons to a substance
a loss of electrons or an increase in the net positivity of an atom or molecule. Biological oxidations are usually achieved by removal of hydrogen from a molecule
the electron donor in a redox reaction
the electron acceptor in a redox reaction
redox pair
two compounds, molecules, or atoms involved in mutual reduction and oxidation
reduction potential
a measurement of the tendency of a reductant to yield electrons in a redox reaction, expressed in volts
electron pressure
a measure of the tendency to donate electrons
plasma membrane
cell membrane; surface membrane
lipid bilayer
the continuous double layer of lipid molecules that forms the basic structure of a biological membrane
peripheral proteins
membrane-lined proteins that do not extend thru the membrane
integral proteins
proteins spanning the plasma membrane that form selective filters and active transport devices that get nutrients into and cellular products and waste out of the cell
glycerol based lipids found in biological membranes
a lipid formed by a fatty acid attached to the nitrogen atom of sphingosine, a long chain, oily amino alcohol; occurs primarily in the membranes of neurons
a group of solid, primarily unsaturated polycyclic alcohols
fluid mosaic model
the accepted model for bio membranes, in which globular proteins are integrated into the lipid bilayer
a natural sterol, precursor to the steroid hormones
dispersion of atoms, molecules, or ions as a result of random thermal motion
fick diffusion equation
an equation defining the rate of solute diffusion through a solvent
the movement of solute or solvent into a cell across the plasma membrane
the movement of solute or solvent out of a cell across the plama membrane
net flux
the sum of influx and efflux thru a membrane or other material
the ease with which substances can pass through a membrane
the movement of pure solvent from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentation through a semipermeable membrane
diffusion coefficient
a coefficient relating the rate of diffusional flux to concentration gradient, path length, and the area across which diffusion occurs
paritition coefficient
ratio of the distribution of a substance between two different liquid phases (eg oil and water)
hydrostatic pressure
force exerted over an area due to pressure in a fluid
osmotic flow
the solvent flux due to osmotic pressure
having the same osmotic pressure
containing a lower concentration of osmotically active constituents than the solution of reference
containing a greater concentration of osmotically active constituents than the solution of reference
having a lower tonicity than a reference solution
having a higher tonicity than a reference solution
the relative osmotic pressure of a solution under given conditions
having a tonicity equal to that of a reference solution.

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