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AP Euro Section 1


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Italian: rinascita
Means "rebirth" Time of significant contributions to western civilization. Especially in lit, art, philosophy, political&historical thought.
Itanlian and Northern
Italian Renn:primarily interested in secular concerns
Norhtern Renn:Religious concerns; lay foundation for Protestant Reformation
City States
Self-governing state consisting of a city and surrounding territory. ie Italy during Renaissance
Debated term among scholars; characterizeed as a program of study, including rhetoric and lit, based on what students in the classical world would have studied.
Francesco Patrarch, considered the father of humanism. Coined the phrase "Dark Ages" Sought out to find and study original classical Latin works.
Classical Civilizations And Renaissance
The ideas and philosophies of ancient Greece and Rome were revived during the Renaissance.
Civic Humanists
A group of wealthy young Flourentines who were inspired by Ptrarch's work, and went further by studying classical Greek language.
Ancient Greek Philosopher who had a great deal of interest to Renaissance writers.
Pico della Mirandola
Renaissance writer who wrote "Oration on the Dignity of Man" inspired by Plato's belief that ideals exist beyond our ability to recognize them.
One of the Renaissance writers who strove to describe the ideal man of the age. Wrote "The Courtier"
Lorenzo Valla
Critcal figure in the field of critical text analysis. Found that languages could tell a history of their own.
Women In the Renaissance
In the Middle Ages only women connected to nunneries learned to read and write, during Renaissance,a# of wealthy secular woman learned these skills.
Medival Art vs. Renaissance Art
Ren. Artsmen were given more individual recognition than Midival "annonymous craftsmen" Ren. Artist sought prestige and partonage from secular individuals vs spritual message, started using oil paintings, chiaroscuro,4 single point perspective
High Renaissance
(end of 15th century)
Rome replaced Florence as the center of artistic patronage. Series of Popes were very interested in the arts
Raphael (1483-1520)
High Renaissance Artist who was given very important cmmissions in the Vatican palaces
Leonardo DA Vinci (1452-1519)
High Renaissance Artist, but also a military engineer, architect, sculptor, scientist and inventor. Sketchbooks show workable designs fo submarines and helicopters. Painted the Mona Lisa
Michelangelo (1475-1564)
High Renaissance Artist/ sculptor. Famous works: sculpture of David,Sistine Chapel, Commissioned by 4 popes
Northern Renaissance
Italian Renaissance writers thought less about religion than the Northern writers, for whom Religion was paramount. They began to study early Christian authors
Christian Humanists
Northern writers such as Erasmus and More who criticized the mother church.
Desiderius Erasmus (1466?-1536)
Greatest northern humanist, wrote many books about the Church and beliefs, was at first impressed with MArtin Luther's attack on church, but wanted to reform not abandon
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
Englishman who wrote "Utopia" and became a martyr when he wouldn't recognize Henry VIII as the Head of the Church of England
Albrecht Durer
Northern Renaissance Artist whose woodcuts powerfully lent support to the doctrinal revolution of Martin Luther
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
Great English playwrite who was unrivaled
Johannes Gutenburg
Invented the movable type printing press.
Influence of Renaissance On Reformation
The Renaissance led individuals to question certain aspects of the church;beliefs, pracitices, teachings
Problems in the church
1. Growing anticlericalism
2. a rise in pietism
3. poorly educated lower clergy
Geoffrey Chaucer
wrote "The Canterbury Tales"
Great Schism
a time caused by the sad specter of three competing popes excommunicating each other.
The notion of a direct relationship between an individual and God
John Wycliffe (1329-1384))
English man involved in the religious movement; questioned many things; told his followers to read the Bible and interpret it for themselves
Jan Huss (1369-1415)
Led a revolyt in Bohemia that combined religious and nationalistic elements; Was called before the Council of Constance in 1415& was burned at the stake
A practice that began during the drusades, people could pay the Church and buy their way into Heaven
Martin Luther and the 95 Theses
Martin Luther tacked his 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church at Wittenberg. The theses attacked many practices og the Church and caused much controversey.
Johann Tetzel
A Dominican friar who was sent to preach the indugence throughout Germany with the famous phrase "A soon as the gold in the basin rings, the soul to heaven rings."
Diet Of Worms
a meeting of the German nobility.
Marriage, Ordination, Extreme Unction, Comfirmation, Penance, Communiuon, Baptism)
a : abstention from sexual intercourse b : abstention by vow from marriage
3 Reasons why the Refrormation Succeeded
1.Luther and his church were socially conservative and therefore not a threat to the social order 2.Luther was willing to subordinate his church to the authority of the German princes 3.Political issues within the Holy Roman Empire
German Protestant Revolt of 1525
German peasants revolted as a result of worsening economic conditions and a belief the Luther waas calling for egalitarianism
Preisthood of all Believers
Luthers call which was misinterpreted by the German peasants as a message of social egalitarianism
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire during the Reformation
Peace Of Augsburg, 1555
granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in territories ruled by a Lutheran, while a Cotholic ruler ensured the area remained Catholic.
a religious sect that denied the idea of infant baptism
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
Swiss reformist who's ideas were similar to Luther's but had major differences. Denied the sacraments and did not belive Christ was in the eucharist.
John Calvin (1509-1564)
French reformist who settled in Geneva Switzerland; wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religian", started Calvinism
Calvin's view that grace is only given to few individuals while the rest were cosigned to hell
French Calivinists
Henry VIII (r.1509-1546)
English King who at first was supportive of the Catholic Church, but then started the Church of England when he couldn't get a divorce
Catherine of Aragon
Henry VIII's wife who he tried to divorce
Anne Boleyn
Young woman in Henry VIII's court whom he fell in love with.
Act of Supremacy
Acknowledged the King of England as the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church Of England (Anglican)
The Church started by Henry VIII
Edward VI (r.1547-1553)
son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
Mary Tudor (r. 1553-1558)
Bloody Mary
Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who tried to reconnect England with the papacy
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)
Daughter of Henru VIII and Anne Boleyn who worked out a religous settle ment for the Church of England
Catholic Reformation/ Counter-Reformation
The Catholic Church taking steps to counteract some of the successes of the Protestant side.
Index of Prohibited Books
Created in the Counter Rerformation which included works by writers like Erasmus and Galileo
papal Inquisition
Roman Catholic tribunal for the discovery and punishment of heresy
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
Catholic movement that enhanced the power of the papacy and made reforms such as limiting the selling of church offices.
Baroque Art
form of art that came about due to the Council of Trent
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
served as a teaching order and also as Catholic missionaries
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)
Spanish noble who organized the Jesuits

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