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Date Range and Places of Baroque Period
Europe: Germany, France & Italy
Age of Science
-time when the telescope & microscope first used
-Newton developed theory of gravity
-this mental climate had a significant effect on art & music

What is Baroque?
Baroque art is considered imperfect, eccentric, elaboratory ornamented, flamboyant
Doctrine of Affections
-Baroque music can be powerful, yet very impersonal
-composers feel music should have a lot emotional feelings or "affects" but not theirs
4 Different Aspects to convey Doctorine of Affections
1. Rhythm: repeated patterns throughout brimming with energy & beat is clearly marked. harmonic rhythm predictable
2. Melody: opening melody repeated. continually unwinding. tends to be ornamental & elaborate
3. Dynamics: use of terraced dynamics. keyboard instruments: harpsicord & organ
4. Tempo: stays the same throughout may be a change, different movement

Terraced Dynamics
volume tends to stay constant for a time, if does change its sudden
Basso Continuo & 2 Instruments Used
(Continuous Bass)
-accompianment of a bass part together with numbers which specifies chords to be played above it
-usually played with 2 instruments (harpsichord, organ)
2.low melodic (one note at a time) instrument (cello, bassoon)
-left hand of keyboard plays bass doubled by cello/bassoon
-right hand improvises the chords

keyboard instruments of Baroque Period
harpsichord & organ
How many players in Baroque orchestra?
10-30 players
Core of Baroque Orchestra
1. upper strings
2. basso continuo
Does Baroque orchestra have standard/nonstandard sections?.
a polyphonic composition based on one main theme called the subject. different lines take turns playing the subject from high to low voice.
4 parts of fugue
1. subject: main theme
2. answer: main theme 5 degrees higher
3. countersubject: accompanies subject
4. episodes: transitional section between presentations of subject

How many movements in a concerto?
self contained section with different themes, tempo, mood usually labeled with roman numerals or numbers
Generes of Baroque Period
1. fugue
2. concerto
3. concerto grosso
4. sonata

concerto grosso
group of 2-5 soloists with orchestra
how many movements in concerto grosso?
3 movements
ritornello form
1. return of recognizable material (or theme)
2. alternating between the two groups of soloists & orchestra (Tutti)
I & III movements use ritornello

Format of concerto?
Formats of concerto grosso?
-drama sung throughout with orchestral accompaniment, involves music, poetry, costumes, scenery, & chorus
-started in italy, flourished throughout europe

-a vocal solo, elaborate, with orchestral accompaniment, & MANY notes per syllable
-action stops, singer moves to stage center & sings about feelings
-ABA (de capo) aria-3 sections, with last part more embellished

-text of an opera
-usually written by a poetor librettist
-(castrati) castrated boys at puberty to retain a singing voice, but the lung power of a man
-only in italy (1600-1750), 70% of all opera singers were emasculated male sopranos & altos
Dates of Classical period
classical period was in the age of???
classical period was during what 2 ages???
enlightment & reason
age of enlightenment???
-time of philosphers
-Voltaire or Francois Marie Arouet
-Denis Diderot

age of reason???
-approach of rationality & reason
-applying intelligence to solve problems of morality, education & politics
how many players in classical orchestra???
-40-60 players
-4 sections (strings, winds, brass, & percussion)
Classical Strings Section
-1st & 2nd violins
-double bass

Classical woodwinds orchestra section
-2 flutes
-2 oboes
-2 clarinets
-2 bassoons

classical brass section of orchestra
-2 trumpets
-2 french horns
-trombones were only added in 1808 only in operas & choral music
-no tuba (not invented yet)

classical orchestra percussion section
-2 timpani
-bass drum

What is a symphony?
-a large orchestral piece in several movements (usually 4)
-gave a rise in public concerts
-period needed a genre that would be a substantial work (20-30 minutes long)

Chamber Music for Classical period?
-music played in small groups often unconducted
-most popular was a string quartet: 2 violins, viola & cello
What is a Sonata?
a multi-movement work for one or more instruments at least on movement is in sonata form & for all instruments
3 Sections of Sonata-form
exposition, development, recapitulation
"City of Musicians"??
Vienna, Austria
patronage system
-a wealthy patron or establishment hires a composer for exclusive employment
ex: Bach w/ St. Thomas Church or Haydn w/ Esterhazy family
pros of patronage system
-provides lodging & meals
-musicians play their own work
-stead income
-guranteed work
-audiences for composer

Free-Lance System
a sytem where composer works for himself, accepting different commissions to write music
cons of free-lance system
-no security, n gurantee of work, very unstable
-must take care of his own needs
George Frederic Handel
-Born Germany studied in italy and england
-wrote operas and oratories
-1702 studied law at Halle University
-court musician in Hanover, Germany
-wrote 40 operas, 26 oratories, Water Music, several instrument sonatas, concerti grossi, & organ concerti

text painting
where music reflects the text
opera based on religious subject, usually performed during lent
Time of Uprising
classical period american revolution, french revolution and napoleanic wars took place
preclassical period
-the transition from baroque to classical period
genres of classical period
-chamber music:string quartet

-born in venice, italy
-"red priest" nicknamed
-famous for the four season

Age of Absolutism
absolute rule of "God-chosen" monarchs
3 Main Instituutions for a Composer
-opera house

-a one word per syllable
-used to move dialogue along, for action & other places where its important for the words to be brought out
Who started the opera and why?
-Florentine Camarata who met in Florence, Italy wanted to invent a new vocal style modeled from musi of ancient Greek tragedy
-half sing/half speak
Where was the opera "Abduction from the Seraglio" set?
Who was the mysterious stranger in grey, in real life?
a servant of the Count of Wessberg
Haydn was under the patronage of what family?
Prince of Esterhazy
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
-born in Salzburg, Germany
-a child progidy keyboard 7 violin
-wrote 27 piano concerti
-was composer, soloist, concert manager & ticket seller
-41 symphonies

Franz Joseph Haydn
-known as "Papa Haydn"
-wrote 104 symphonies: "Father of Symphonies"
-83 string quartets
-6 masses
-2 oratories
-worked at estate of Prince of Esterhazy
-1790 patron dies & commissioned to Long
-wrote 12 symphonies "London Symphonies"
-known for sense of humor & wit on his music

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