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Chapter 3, 4,6


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Cell (plasma) membrane
Structure - Membrane composed of a double layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded.

Functions - Gives form to cell and controls passage of materials in and out of cell
Structure - Fluid, jellylike substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus in which organelles are suspended.

Functions - Serves as matrix substance in which chemical reactions occur.
Endoplamsic reticulum
Structure - System of interconnected membrane forming canals and tubules.

Functions - Provides supporting framework within cytoplasm; transports materials and provides attachment for ribosomes.
Structure - Granular particles composed of protein and RNA

Functions - Synthesize proteins
Golgi complex
Structure - Cluster of flattened membraneous sacs.

Functions - Synthesizes carbohydrates and packages molecules for secretion; secretes lipids and glycoproteins.
Structure - Double-walled membranous sacs with folded inner partitions.

Functions - Release energy from food molecules and transform energy into usable ATP.
Structure - Single-walled membranous sacs

Functions - Digest foreign molecules and worn and damaged cells.
Structure - Spherical membranous vesicles

Fuctions - Contain enzymes that detoxify harmful molecules and break down hydrogen peroxide.
Structure - Nonmembranous mass of two rodlike centrioles

Functions - Helps organize spindle fibers and distribute chromosomes during mitosis of a cell cycle.
Structure - Membranous sacs

Functions - Store and release various substances within the cytoplasm
Fibrils and microtubules
Structure - Thin, hollow tubes

Functions - Support cytoplasm and transport materials within the cytoplasm.
Cilia and flagella
Structure - Minute cytoplasmic projections that extend from the cell surface.

Functions - Move particles along cell surface or move the cell
Nuclear membrane (envelope)
Structure - Double-walled membrane composed of protein and lipid molecules that surrounds the nucleus.

Functions - Supports nucleus and controls passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
Structure - Dense nonmembranous mass composed of protein and RNA molecules

Functions - Forms ribosomes
Structure - Fibrous strands composed of protein and DNA molecules.

Functions - Contains genetic code that determines which proteins (especially enzymes) will be manufactured by the cell.
Factors for permeability
(pg. 54)
1. Structure of the cell membrane

2. Size of the molecules

3. Ionic charge

4. Lipid solubility

5. Presence of carrier molecules

6. Pressure differences
Movement through Cell Membranes
1. Diffusion - area of high concentration to low concentration.

2. Osmosis - use of water

3. Facilitated diffusion - used for essential nutrients
Movement through Cell Membranes
1. Active transport - use of ATP to get compound through

2. Endocytosis
-Pinocytosis: deep grove becomes vesicle
-Phagocytosis: eating, cell wraps around food
G0 - normal functioning of cell
G1 - Amasses double of all functional matter
S - Chromosomes are replicated
DNA replication
G2 - Final wrap up
M - Mitosis begins
Mitosis phases
Prophase - chromatin begins to condense

Metaphase - chromatin line up on equator

Anaphase - daughter chromatids are formed; pulled apart by centrioles; tubules disappear

Telophase - New nuclear membrane forms; cell division nearly complete
Types of cartilage
Hyaline - very smooth, allows smooth movement... very brittle also... found between joints

Elastic - able to stretch; nose, ears, etc.

Fibrocartilage - can take a lot of impact; in between knees, menisci
Functions of bones
1. Support
2. Protection
3. Movement
4. Mineral storage
5. Blood cell formation (B-Cells)
Classifications of bones
1. Long - Longer than it is wide
2. Short
3. Flat
4. Irregular - Neither long, short, or flat
Parts of bone
1. Compact bone tissue
2. Spongy bone tissue

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