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general tricky vocab

now that i know phillips might see this, i feel like i should have a legit title

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
that's not all folks
If the notion of reciprocal concessions is accurate, the person shouldn't actually have to refuse the initial offer for the shift to a smaller concession to work. So...The influencer begins with an inflated request, then decreases its apparent size by offering a discount or bonus. n.b. that Norm of reciprocity is at work here, too (large to small)
confirmation bias
The tendency to seek evidence to support one's hypothesis rather than to look for evidence that will undermine the hypothesis.
self-efficacy
we can make outcome occur, we have the power to make things go our way, this is associated with greater tolerance of frustration and better performance
choleric
(humor theory) excess of yellow bile, bad-tempered and irritable
Thantanos
the death drive (named after a minor greek god of death)
being motivations
drives for growth rather than making up for a lack, a desire to experiance
sanguine
(humor theory) excess blood, cheerful and passionate
object relation theories
Relationships with others provide our most powerful motivations for our behavior
equality matching relationship
A type of relationship in which each partner gives something to the other and expects to receive something in return.
Sublimation (defense)
transforming negatives urges into positive actions
peak experience
Profound experiences that are deeply felt, ecstatic, giving a feeling of awe and value
anticonvulsants (drug)
for mania. Tolerated better than lithium, but serious side effects k
conformity (as a form of social influence)
change in perceptions, opinions, or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms
modeling (as a form of social influence)
influence through providing a model to imitate
authoritarian personality
A cluster of personal attributes (e.g., submission to persons above and harshness to those below) and social attitudes (e.g., prejudice against minority groups) that is sometimes held to constitute a distinct personality.
Identification
identifying with some important figure in your life and taking on their characteristics
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
affects all neurotransmitter levels.used for cases of severe depression, a brief electric current is passed through the brain to produce a convulsive seizure. s
congruence
being genuinely one's self, full expression of experience: both the positive and negative aspects self-actualization; movement toward greater autonomy and self-trust
authority ranking relationship
A type of relationship based on power and hierarchy, exemplified by many of the relationships in traditional companies, universities, and military organizations.
dysthymia
like major depressive disorder but longer lasting and less disabling.
market pricing relationship
A type of relationship in which each participant is primarily concerned with making sure that what he is putting into the relationship is proportional to what he is getting out of it.
Regression (defense)
When stressed, go back to a previous form of functionng
benzodiazepines (drug)
for anxiety. like xangax, increases availability of GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitter D
DSM-IV-TR
the crrent version of the diagnostic and statistical manual used to diagnose psychopathology in the USA
Lithium (drug)
for mania, 60-80% respond, can cause weight gain, need to be very careful, therapeutic dose is close to toxic dose d
out-group homogeneity effect
A phenomenon related to stereotyping in which a member of a group (the in-group) tends to view members of another group (the out-group) as more alike (less varied) than are members of his or her own group
Interpersonal therapy
A mode of therapy originally intended as a brief method to counter depression, but now extended to other disorders. In this therapy, the focus is on the patient's gaining an understanding of how she interacts with others, and then learning new and more beneficial ways of interacting and communicating. b
medical model of psychopathology
Doesn't necessarily assume a biological cause or a biological treatment
Carl Rogers
Believed that people are Innately endowed with a tendency to survive, grow and reach full potential, Emphasized personal freedom and choice. Freedom from 'shoulds' and 'oughts' ; When we limit ourselves to tyranny of shoulds and oughts we loose track of our motivations and choices
virtue
according to Erickson, an emotional ability you get from during each stage of development that increases the likelihood of solving the next stage's crisis
outcome expectations
A set of beliefs, drawn from experience, about what the consequences (rewards or punishments) of certain actions are likely to be.
Cannon's position on emotions
our bodily experiences happen too slowly to be the source of our emotions; physiological and experiential responses occur simltaniously
identification (in terms defense mechanisms)
Internallizing, identifying with some important figure in your life and taking on their characteristics
Hierarchy of needs
Physiological, Saftey, belonging, esteem, self actualization
prognosis
outcome
Projection (defense)
projecting feelings onto others
biopsychosocial model for causes of psychopathology
A perspective often taken in discussions of psychopathology, with the perspective including biological factors (e.g., genetics or hormonal influences), psychological factors (i.e., a style of thinking) and social factors (i.e., the presence of social support). etiology Signs and symptoms of mental illness are produced by an underlying cause
positive symptoms
too much of something
obedience (as a form of social influence)
behavior change produced by the commands of authority
Bowlby
some guy who said primary interest is connection and closeness, attachment between infants and their caregivers
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
for depression just affects serotonin, like prozak i
idiographic approach to personality
unique understanding of each individual
Abraham Maslow
believed that people only strive for higher-order needs when lower-order needs are satisfied. heirarchy of needs guy
James-Lange theory of emotion
Emotional experiences cause emotional behavior ex, See a bear, run, "feel" our behavior as fear only after we run... Supported by facial feedback theory, The configuration in which we hold our facial muscles influences the emotion we then claim as our experience
melancholic
(humor theory)excess of black bile, gloomy and pessimistic
fixation
if don't move smoothly from one stage to the next. Can cause you to get stuck in a stage, or when adult,regress back to that form
phlegmatic)
(humor theory) excess phlegm, sluggish, calm, and unexcitable
Reaction formation (defense)
an urge or feeling you feel guilty about so superficially transform (Ex, when you hate someone, overacting like you like them)
social-cognitive approach
Social-cognitive theorists focus on the various cognitive characteristics along which personalities may differ. Combo of behavioral psych (role of experience, learning) and cognitive psych (interpretations of the world)
attribution-of-arousal theory (Schachter & Singer)
Interpretation of changes in physiology are crucial to our labeling and experiences of our emotions, considers cognitive appraicsal and conetx of emotional phenomenon
dispositional quality
Attributions which focus on factors that are internal to the person, such as a person's traits, preferences, and other internal qualities.
cyclothymia
a milder version of bipolar II, a cycle of mania and depression
unconditional positive regard
Carl Rogers says we need this to develop properly. includes warm acceptance, non-evaluative, being prized, capable of own perceptions and choices.
humoral theory
based on the four humors, bodily fluids, and the balance of them
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
for depression.Prevents breakdown of norepinephrine by inhibiting the action of the enzyme causing that breakdown creates increase in norepinphrine in the synapse (also affects serotonin) y
diathesis-stress
diathesis is underlying (and original) vulnerability or predisposition, Stress is set of environmental conditions that stress the system and precipitate the pathologypsychodynamic model for psychopathology: unconscious conflicts and defenses against anxiety, often rooted in early childhood experiences
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
tries to help patients identify their automatic thoughts and reactions, and to substitute more beneficial reactions a
atypical antipsychotic drugs
Reduce positive symptoms, but also reduce negative symptom, These drugs lack some of the undesirable motor side effects. l
preconscious
Mental processes that are not currently in focal awareness, but that could easily be brought to awareness
Rationalization
Use of plausible but incorrect information to rationalize behaviors, may have happened but are not the real reason for what happened (dog ate homework)
compliance (as a form of social influence)
changes in behavior that are elicited by direct requests
nomothetic approach to personality
personality is a product of general physical and biological, and psychological laws
DSM
diagnostic and statistical manual
Eysenck
Two independent, continuous dimensions on which we all vary Introversion-Extroversion dimension, Neuroticism/emotional stability dimension
3 levels of conciousness
unconscious, preconscious, conscious
communal sharing relationship
A type of relationship in which each participant is primarily concerned with making sure that what he is putting into the relationship is proportional to what he is getting out of it.
tardive dyskinesia
disease caused by antipsychotics, that causes parkinson's like symptoms c
classic antipsychotic drugs
Mainly reduce positive symptoms by blocking dopamine receptors), but relatively ineffective in treating negative symptoms, lots of side effects j
tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
Mechanism similar to MAOIs - ↑ levels of available NE and serotonin e
important defense mechanisms
Repression (involuntary) Suppression, Denial, Displacement
negative symptoms
not enough of something - ex blunted/limited emotion, poverty of speech, poverty of language
anhedonia
absense of happiness

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