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Skeletal System Unit


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the skeltal sustem includes the _____, the______, the ______, the ______, and the ______
the bones, the joints, the tendons, the cartilage, and the ligaments
What are the major divisions of the skeletal system
axial=core, appendicular=arms and legs
What is the function of the tendon
connecting muscles to bones
what is the function of a ligament
to connect bone to bone
What is a sprain
a stretch or tear to a ligament
What is a 1st degree sprain?
a stretch
What is a 2nd degree sprain?
part tear
What is a 3rd degree sprain?
ripped all the way through
What are the 5 main functions of the skeletal system?
Hemopoiesis, storage of minerals, support the body, protect the organs, movement
Hemopoeisis forms what type of cell other than blood cell?
stem cell
the stem cells give rise to what?
most of the other cells in the body
where are the primary areas of blood cell formation (hemopoeisis)?
femur, humerus, base of skull, spinal column, and sternum
What are the 3 main shapes of bones (and give examples)
long (femur), flat (scapula), and irregular (vertebrae)
what is the periosteum?
a thin layer on the surface of bones; nourishes (by supplying w/ nutrients via blood vessels it contains) and protects
What is the epiphysis (end)
end of bone that articulates (forms joint) w/ another bone
The epiphysis is commposed mainly of?
spongy bone
The diaphysis is composed mainly of what? Which allows it to do what?
Compact bone; gives it strength
The ______ covers the surface of the epiphysis to line and protect the articulation region
Hyaline cartilage
What is the purpose of the medullary cavity?
It holds the bone marrow, which forms the stem cell, which are crucial for growth, development, and differentiation of tissues
What is another word for epiphyseal plates?
What will happen if an epiphyseal plate is damaged before it ossifies?
Growth in that bone may cease or become uneven (breaks in young bones are therefore very important)
What are the three main types of bone cells
osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes
What is the function of the osteoblasts?
to build up bone, cannot divide w/ mitosis
What is the function of the osteoclasts?
eat done or break down cone, break done outer bone to repair and maintain it
What are osteocytes?
mature osteoblasts surrounded by minerals
What hormone does estrogen inhibit?
parathyroid hormone, PTH signals osteoclasts to degrade bone
why do women have a higher chance of getting osteoporosis?
They go through menopause, estrogen levels decrease, and the effects of PTH are uninhibited. Osteoclasts break down bone.
How do floating ribs differ from true ribs
they dont attach to the sternum
What is hemopoiesis
the formation of blood cells/stem cells
Why are stem cells important
they give rise to most of the other cells in the body
What are th two major divissions of the skeleton
axial, appendicular
Thouroughly discuss the importance of, and evolution of the human hand
The human hand is the most versatile part of the body; considered an organ. Oncer humans started walking upright, they began to reach out and touch things. The opposable thumb allowed this
How many bones are in the axial skeleton?
How many bones are in the appendicular skeleton?
Give examples of the 5 main functions of the skeletal system:
Hemopoiesis: makes blood cells Structure/support: Femur supports body weight Movement:bones attach to muscle to move bone storage of minerals: calcium, phosphorus Protection: ribs protect the heart
Contrast osteoblasts with osteoclasts and ostecytes
osteoblasts build bone, osteoclasts eat (degrade) bone, and osteocytes are mature osteoblasts
What part of bone is living? Nonliving?
cells; minerals
How many total vertebrae are there?
What are the three divisions of the vertebrae
cervical, lumbar, thoracic
How many vertebrae are in the cervical part?
How many vertebrae are in the lumbar part?
How many vertebrae are in the thoracic part?
What is carpal tunnel syndrome?
It is a build up of fluid in the wrist between the ligaments, tendons, and bone. Causes pain and swelling.
How do you treat carpal tunnel syndrome?
Rest, anti-inflammantory drugs, surgery, and braces
What are unusual about the saccrum and the coccyx
They are as a result of the fusion of 5 vertebrae
How does the foot differ in composition from the hand
It is more muscular and stable so it can support more weight. Also, thumb/big toe is less moveable for less tripping
What joint is found in the thumb
Saddle joint
Where is the most common site of back injury?
5th lumbar vertebrae
What is the strongest bone in the body?
What is the strongest bone in the face
how is cartilage similar to bone?
It turns into bone and is somewhat rigid
How is cartilage different from bone
it contains more water so is more flexible
How does the fetal skeleton differ from the adult?
It is smaller, mostly cartilage, still growing, has fontanels (suture)
What is arthritis? What happens in th disease?
Arthritis the most common joint disorder. It causes pain and inflammation of the joints
define/describe: sprain
the stretch or tear of a ligament
define/describe: flat feet/ fallen arches
when ligament that hold the tarsals of the foot become weak; pain, and unability to walk
define/describe: osteoporosis
when bone becomes porous due to loss of calcium
define/describe: slipped/herniated disk
when a disk between two vertebrae bulges out and presses against the nerves-very painful
define/describe: dislocation
when a bone comes out of its join (ball/socket)
define/describe: bone spur
a shaggy edge/growth/protrusion on the bone, painful
How do the male and female pelvises differ?
The female pelvis is broad, rounded, shallower, and wider. The male pelvis is thicker, bulkier, narrow, and funnel shaped
How can high heels cause problems for the skeletal system?
They can weaken the ligaments and disrupt the arch, which causes flat feet
List three age changes seen in the skelton
bones lose calcium, bone resorption, and bone spurs
How does bone respond to stress/weight bearing excercise?
It responds positively by getting stronger
Why is cartilage so slow to heal?
b/c it doesnt get a direct blood flow
What is an articulation
a joint, a place where two bones join together, sometimes moveable
How are joints classified
based on function and composition
What are the three main types of joints
cartilaginous, fibrous, and synovial
The bones are attahced by fibrous connective tissue in this type of joint
the bones are connected by cartilage reinforced by fibrous tissue in this type of joint
The ________joint is surrounded by a fibrous capsule interlaced w/ ligaments and tendons
What is scoliosis?
An abnormal curvature of the spine that occurs during rapid growth periods
What 5 substances are required for proper bone formation and the absorption of calcium?
B12, C, A, D, hormones
What are cartilage cells called?
What does endochondral mean?
bones that develop from masses of hyaline cartilage
How many bones are in the skeletal susytem
The axial skeleton consists of the ____, the_____, and the______
skull, ribs, and vertebrae
The Appendicular skeleton consist of the _____(arms,legs, etc.), the _____, the _____, and the ____
appendiges, shoulders, hips, and limbs
What is the #1 work-related injury in america
back injury
Why is the vertebral column imporrtant
because it protects te spinal chord
Scoliosis is more common in?
The______region includes the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae
The thoracic region
The thoracic region is also known as?
the chest region
How many pairs of ribs are there
______ribs attach only to spine
True ribs attach to sternum by______
What is the top pelvis called? Middle? Bottom?
Ileum/ilium, ischium, the pubis (pubic bone)
What are 4 common causes of flat feet?
heredity, posture, overuse, higheels
The technical term for losing bone as we age
bone resorption
ossification is what?
bone building
why are bone fractures more serious in older people
b/c the inactivity can lead to pneumonia, blood clots, etc.
Bone spurs are due to what?
osteoblast/osteoclast action not balancing
When can osteoporosis begin in femals
list 5 risk factors for getting osteoporosis
smoking, low calcium diets, drinking alcohol, having a small body frame, being asian or caucasian (others; over excercise, herdity)
when is most bone laid down
in the teen years, which is why it is so important to have good habits now! E.g eat foods w/ calcium
What is the relation between estrogen, body fat, and calcium?
if a woman looses too much body fat, she will stop producing estrogen. this will cause calcium to be pulled from the bones and result in a higher likeleness of fractures, ets.
Where is calcium absorbed from
the GI tract
When does bone destruction (_______) exceed bone formation in women?
resorption, around 35
What effect does inactivity have on the bones
weakens them
What is a fracture
a break in a bone
what is another word for a blood clot
a hematoma
What happens in a fracture?
blood escapes from the torn vessels and forms a clot. Swelling and inflamation also occur due to fluid ruching to the site and the release of inflamantory chemicals
in a fracture, osteoblasts fill the ______ and divide to build ______bone
hematoma; spongy
Where does most bone in the body come from?
Eventually, cartilage fills the gaps between the ends of the broken bone. this is replaces later by bone and called a ______
bony callus
What is involved in the smoothing of bones
Give an example for each type of joint
Fibrous-suture Cartilaginous- between ribs and sternum Synovial joints-hinge joint
give 4 examples of wher cartilage is found
nose, ear, between the ribs, and between joints
what are lacunae
house the osteocytes
what do osteocytes do?
transort nutrients and wastes to and from nearby cells by means of cellular processes passing through canaliculi
___gives bone its strength and resilience
________make bone hard and resistant to crushing
inorganic salts
list 4 factors that influence bone development, growth and repair
nutrition, exposure to sunlight, hormonal secretions, and physical excercise
In children the disease in which you lack vitamin D (and are unable to absorb calcium) is called? in adults?
rickets; osteomalacia
Give 3 places Vitamin D is gotten for the body
Eggs, Milk, dehydrocholestoral
Vitamin A is required for____ and ____activity during development. W/o it what could happen?
osteoblast, osteoclast; w/o it could retard bone development
Vitamin C is required for what?
collagen synthesis
What is the name for the lack of parathyroid hormone
pituitary dwarfism
What is the name for the excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone
pituitary gigantism
Define rheumatoid arthritis
an autoimmune disorder (the immune system attacks the body's healthy tissues
Rheumatoid arthritis is the most___and _____form of srthritis
painful and debilitating
What specifically happens to the joints in RA?
the synovial membrane becomes infalmmed, thickens and forms a mass called a pannus.
What happens to the articular cartilage in RA
in gets damaged, fibrous tissue infiltrates, may not be able to move again
what symptoms accompany RA
fatigue, muscular atrophy, anemia, osteoporosis, changes in skin, eye, ear, lungs, blood vessels, heart
Lyme disease is a ______ infection passed in a _____ bite
bacterial; tick
How do you treat lyme disease
anti biotics to prevent arthrits
The initial symptoms of lyme disease are:
rash, fatigue, and flu-like aches and pains
How do osteocytes pass nutrients
by means of cellular processes passing through canaliculi
What is another word for the mass that forms on the joint in RA

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