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Urinary System


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countercurrent multiplication
when sodium and chloride ions are pumped into the peritubular fluid, causing osmosis to occur through the descending limb, accelerating the ion reabsorption
loop of henle
further reabsorps water in the descending limb and sodium and chloride ions in the ascending limb
filtration pressure
net hydrostatic pressure - osmotic pressure
distal convoluted tubule
last part of the renal tubule; secretion of ions, acids, drugs, and toxins
excretion, elimination, and regulation of blood pressure
main functions of urinary system
detrusor muscle
thick smooth muscle that makes up most of the urinary bladder that contracts during micturition
triangular area that acts as a funnel that channels urine into the urethra when the urinary bladder contracts
urinary bladder
muscular sac for temporary storage of urine
main organ of the urinary system; produce urine
sodium, bicarbonate, and urea
what is reabsorbed by the collecting system
proximal convoluted tubule
where reabsorbtion of most of organic nutrients and water takes place
what process of urine formation occurs at the proximal convoluted duct?
renal corpuscle
spherical shaped initial blood-filtering component of the kidney
micturition reflex
the relaxation of the urethral sphincter in response to increase pressure in the bladder
maintains an adequate GFR despite changes in local blood pressure and blood flow; sensed by the arteries
leaking out of water and solutes across the wall of the glomerular capillaries and into the capsular space
cells that surround glomerular capillaries and form a filtration slits that prevent protein etc. from leaving the blood
secreted by ADH in the distal convoluted tube and collecting ducts
transport of solutes from the peritubular fluid to the tubular fluid; backup for the filtration process
conducts urine to the exterior
proximal convoluted tubule
first section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrients
part of the renal corpuscle that receives blood from the afferent arteriole and sends it to an efferent arteriole
hormone that comes from atrium; triggered by high blood pressure and stretching of the walls of the atrium; opposite of renin
water regulation
what regulates the urine volume and osmotic concentration
papillary duct
several collecting ducts empty the urine into this in order for it to flow to the minor calyx
external urethral sphincter
formed by a circular band of skeletal muscle that acts as a voluntary valve
internal urethral sphincter
located at the neck of the urinary bladder, these smooth muscle fibers provide involuntary control over the discharge of urine from the bladder
lined with transitional epithelium, that carry urine from kidneys to bladder by way of peristalic waves
from the glomerulus to the capsular space in the renal corpuscle
where does filtration occur?
bowman's capsule
part of the renal corpuscle; analogous to the pericardial cavity
collecting duct
collects filtrate from a number of nephrons; comes after the renal tubule
renin-angiotensin system
causes an increase in blood pressure; released by the kidneys when filtration rate is low
hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
collecting system secretes these in order to control the pH in the peritubular fluid
natriuretic petides
hormones that are stimulated by an increase in the blood volume sensed in the heart;; anti-ADH; loss of water and sodium at the kidneys
tubular cells
actively transport sodium and chloride out of the tubular fluid throughout most of the DCT
basic unit of the kidney; filters the blood to produce urine
removal of water and solutes from the tubular fluid, into the peritubular fluid; pulls nutrients, ions, etc. out of the tubes
glomerular filtration rate
volume of filtrate (tubular fluid) produced by the kidneys per minute; high blood pressure results in a high blank
reabsorption and secretion
what processes of urine formation occur at the distal convoluted duct and the collecting system?
renal tubule
long tubular passageway that comes after the renal corpuscle in the nephron
juxtaglomerular apparatus
an endocrine structure that secretes the hormone erthropoietin and the enzyme renin;

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