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HID Exam IIa


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treatment of disease producers (bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.) by chemical agents (drugs)
if person metabolizes drug too quickly, the drug is _______
cell-mediated immunity (CMI), chemical secretions
_________ (____)- T Cell responses- kill an infected cell vs. foreign materials on SURFACE of host cells (vs. in fluids); _________ to activate other cells in the immune responses
living microbes + dead/living neutrophils + dead/living macs + dead/inured tissues
antifungals (azoles)
combine with sterols in fungal cell membranes and destroy membrane->cell leaks and dies
diphtheria tetanus acellular Pertussis bacterium
narrow spectrum, broad spectrum
_______________ drug preferred, so it doesn't kill nonpathogens (normal flora), but it's easier to give a _______ drug
anything the body perceives as foreign (molecules on surfaces of cells), (usu. protein)
protein synthesis
antibiotics can kill microbes by interfering w/ ________________- ex., rifamycin inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of bacteria->Red Man's syndrome
secondary response, short, higher
_______- any time after 1st time you encounter that Ag, ______ lag phase, Ab/T cell response much _______
Antibody production
hummoral rxn by B cells, (2) of (2) involved in immune response
________- first antibody in Ab response,large pentameter, initial receptor on B cell, and first in embryonic development
10-10-10 rule of thumb
10 years it's a miracle drug, next 10 years side effects, next 10 yrs law suits
Gowans Proof
_____________ of lymphocyte role in immune response: an irradiated animal given lymphocytes from a normal animal will have its immune system restored
Humoral immunity
B Cell responses- recognizes foreign material FREE in fluids (blood/lymp) w/ antibody (Ab) prodcution
selective toxicity
goal in creating a drug (a chemical that kills microbe and doesn't injure host)
societal, anticancer
__________ drugs- affect ppl around the person taking the drug, vs. ____________- drugs, which only affects the person on therapy
to prevent disease
if person metabolizes drug too slowly, drug is ________
nucleoside analogues
used to prevent viral replication in cells (ex. antivirals vs. universal nucleotides- toxic to humans)
interferes with bacterial protein synthesis by preventing bacterial aminolacyl tRNA from binding with the 30s ribosomal subunit. (bacteriostatic)
phage therapy
stalin's forgotten cure- determine bacterium strain causing infection->find/administer phage specific to that bacterial strain to kill the harmful bacterium (use externally, not internally!)
________ drug combinations- ex. in treatment of endocarditis, penicillin and streptomycin together have an effect that neither could accomplish alone
resistant staph
following treatment for one infection, common to get another type of infection (common w/ broad spectrum antibiotics)
causes dilation of capillaries to allow for diapedesis (side effects: redness...)
nucleosidic analogue vs. AIDS virus
Activated cells
cells that participate in immune rxns
primary response; long, low
_______- first time encounter an Ag, ______ lag phase, Ab/T cell response _____
chemotherapeutic index
want high _______________: max. tolerated dose per body weight/minimum curative dose per kg body wt
first cells in inflammation to emigrate in rxn to injury/infection
T cell receptors that recognize antigen held only by MHC Class I
regulated cellular destruction
dimer antibody present in the mucus linings of body...
phase III
drug is compared w/ another drug that has already been FDA approved or with a placebo, involves several 1000 patients
nucleoside analogue that mimics the structure of guanine, can only be activated by infected cells enzymes, theoretically safe for noninfected cells, used vs. herpes...
oral drugs best absorbed in the ______ rather than intestines
________ drug combinations- neither drug affects action of the other
________ drug combinations- using one drug bothers another, ex. giving a bacteriocidal agent wipes out effect of bacteriostatic drug
drug combinations
used in mixed infections to prevent drug R'
antibiotics can kill microbes by interfering w/ ________________- ex. competitive inhibition, sulfanilamide binds to an enzyme prevent bacteria from making folic acid, which is necessary for them to multiply
Phase I
tests max. tolerated dose and likely side effects, involves <100 patients
Phase II
identifies the diseases/stages of a disease that are affected by the experimental therapy; involves several 100 patients
T cell receptors that recognize antigen held only by MHC Class II
somatic recombination, cutting and splicing
_______________ aka ________ of Ig genes occurs only in B cells, and allows for the incredible genetic variation in Ab molecules
major/most abundant antibody, small monomer
Memory cells
don't participate in immune rxns, rest in tissues/nodes waiting to ambush AG if it reappears
cell to cell killing
cell-mediated immunity (CMI) by T cells, (1) of (2) involved in immune response
walking through
____________ may accompany/be a separate event from innate immunity; may share some of the same cells/mediators as acquired immunity; involves many leukocyte families
bacteriostatic drug
stops multiplication of bacteria but doesn't kill them
develop drug, effective use, R'
10-1-2 rule of thumb: 10 years to ________, 1 yr _______, by 2 years->_____
cross talk
cells talk w/ each other

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