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Unit 3 BSF

Blood, BLood Vessels, Heart, Lymphatic

Terms

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Erythrocytes
- RBC- transport oxygen.
Right lymphatic duct
short vessel,Receives only lymph from superior right quadrant of the body. Right side of the head, neck and thorax, right upper extremity. Empties into right subclavian vein near the heart.
Leukocytosis
white cell count exceeds 10,000 cells pre mL
Macrophage
- BIG eater.
Polymorphs
nuclei of neutrophils
Thymus
Located in the superior thorax beneath the sternum ,Plays key role in immune system development. (before birth, into infancy), Certain lymphocytes must mature in the thymus gland before they can perform their functions in the immune system, After puberty- shrinks in size; replaced with connective tissue and fat.
Thoracic duct
Rest of body drains by thoracic duct,,Left lymphatic duct is larger of tow terminal vessels. (16 inches) Duct begins in posterior part of abdominal cavity.
Hepatic circulation (portal circulation
Liver circuits- whatever system doesn't use, goes back into liver to store nutrients. Comes off abdominal aorta Liver detoxifies. Will gather material from the intestines. (waste, extra nutrients, gathers in hepatic- either stores it or dumps it into renal.
Lymphoid tissue
distributed throughout the body and make up the specialized organs of the lymphatic system.
Thymosin
develop T-cells ( t lymphocytes) under the effect of the thyumus gland hormone ,promotes lymphocyte growth and activity in lymphoid tissue throughout the body.
Renal circuit
(kidneys)- get main source of blood through abdominal aorta into portal. Needed to detoxify, make urine.
Phagocytosis
engulfing of foreign matter
Branches of abdominal aorta
Celiac trunk, Left gastric artery, Splenic artery, Hepatic artery,Superior mesenteric artery,Inferior mesenteric artery,Paired lateral branches ,Phrenic ateries- breathing.
Lymphocytes
(WBC) lives and multiplies in lymphatic system.They attack and destroy foreign organisms.
Plasma
is 91% water.
Lymphocytes
25% - 38%.Immunity ( T cells and B cells).Second most numerous of white cells.Develop in red bone marrow; but mature in lymphoid tissue.
Blood vessels
Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, Veins
Complement
group of enzymes that helps antibodies in their fight against pathogens.
NK
- natural killer cells type of lymphocyte,Can recognize abnormal cells and destroy them. ,Found in spleen, marrow, blood,Kills cells by secreting a protein that breaks down the cell membrane.
Platelet plug
activated platelets become sticky and adhere to the defect to form a temporary plug.
Plasma protein fraction
- packaged protein available. ( given when plasma proteins are deficient), They increase osmotic pressure of blood and draws fluids back into circulation.
Immunity to disease
- an individuals power to resist or overcome the effects of a particular disease agent or its harmful products.
Brachiocephalic
- right only one-on the right side- breaks into the right common carotid- gives some circulation to right arm and to our head.
Acquired immunity
- develops during a persons lifetime as that person encounters various specific harmful agents.
Tracheobronchial nodes
found near trachea and around larger bronchial tubes.People in highly polluted areas- so filled with carbon they are solid black masses.
Shygomomemometer
- blood pressure. Systolic top- contractions/ diastolic bottom- resting phase- least amount of pressure.
Complete blood count (CBC)
exam of stained blood slide studied under microscope.
Fibrinogen
plasma protein converted to fibrin ( solid threads) in final step of blood clot formation.
Spleen
Contains lymphoid tissue designed to filter blood. Located in the superior left hypochondriac region of the abdomen.
Individual immunity
some members of a given group have more highly developed immunity to specific diseases.
RBC function:
carries oxygen bound to hemoglobin ( gives blood red color),carries some carbon dioxide and buffers blood.
Systemic circuit
entire body. Aorta, Systemic capillaries, Systemic veins
Functions of Blood
Transportation, Regulation ,Protection
*** all lymphatic tissue
associated with mucous membranes are important first barrier against invading microorganisms.
Species immunities
humans and animals have immunity to many of each others diseases.
Anti -A serum-
blood serum containing antibodies that can agglutinate and destroy red cells with A antigen.
Erythropoietin (EPO)
hormone that stimulates red blood cell production.
Monocygtes
- Large WBC- formed in bone marrow- circulate in blood stream to various parts of body. Upon entering the tissues , monocytes develop into Macrophages.
Mesenteric nodes
found between two layers of peritoneum that form the mesentery. (membrane around intestines) 100-150 nodes.
Nonspecific
effective against any harmful agent that enters the body.
Pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary artery and its branches. Capillaries in lungs, Pulmonary veins
Histamine
when tissues are injured histamine is released from the damaged cells causing the small blood vessels to dilate. More blood flows into the area resulting in heat, redness and swelling.
Use of Plasma
Given in emergency to replace blood volume and prevent circulatory failure. (shock), Red cells have been removed- no incompatibility problems. (natural disasters, emergency rescue)
Mechanisms that promote bloods return to heart
Contraction of muscles ,of one way valves, breathing,
Lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic vessels include superficial (near superficial veins) and deep (accompany deep veins) Mammary lymphatic vessels,Femoral lymphatic vessels,Tibial lymphatic vessels,Axillary lymph nodes- all lymph from upper extremity & breast pass here,Inguinal nodes- lower extremity
GALT
- gut- associated lymphoid tissue- peyer patches, tonsils and appendix are included in specific network known as GALT.
Blood plasma
55% of total blood volume.
AB blood
- universal recipients
Macrophages
monocytes enter tissue, enlarge and mature into macrophages,Highly active in disposing of invaders and foreign material.
Inborn immunity
inherited along with other characteristics in a persons genes.
fetal- circulation
- bypassing the lungs and the liver.
Inflammation
bodys effort to get rid of anything that irritates it. Or to limit the harmful effects of the irritant.
Cerebral circuit gets blood into arteries
Around the aortic arch
Cryoprecipitate
when plasma is frozen- when it is thawed- white precipitate forms in the bottom of the container., Especially rich in clotting factor.
Eosinophils
1% - 3%Function: allergic reactions; defense against parasitesstain with acidic dyes (eosin is one) and have bedlike, bright pink granules.
Inflammatory exudates
mixture of leukocytes and fluid, Causes pressure on the nerve endings, which combined with the increased amount of blood in the vessels , causes the pain of inflammation.
Tonsils
Masses of lymphoid tissue located in the vicinity of the pharynx (throat) where they remove contaminants from materials that are inhaled or swallowed. Lymphocytes attack pathogens trapped in these grooves.
Blood
is classified as connective tissue. Consists of cells suspended in an inter cellular background (matrix)Differs from other connective tissue-cells are not fixed in position- They move freely with the plasmaBlood volume - 8% of total body weight.
Anticoagulants
compounds that prevent clotting.
Band cells ( staff cells)
when increase-sign of infection.
A
A antigen present
Antisera
are prepared in animals using A or B antigens to induce response.
Blood pressure
force exerted by blood against vessel walls, determined by hearts output and ressistance to blood flow.
Plasma cells
some lymphocytes become plasma cells,Active in production of circulating antibodies needed for immunity.
Cuircuit:
Blood flows from arteries, to arterials, to capillaries, exchange takes place, comes out to venulas (littlest veins)- to the veins, back into the right atrium.
Branches of thoracic aorta
Branches to chest wall, esophagus, and bronchi, Intercoastal arteries
blood clots in response to
injury, or when blood comes in contact with some surface other than the lining of a blood vessel.
Monocytes
3% - 7% ,Phagocytosis,Largest in size.
Nursing check pulse points.
Apical and radial - normal 60-100
Pus
mixture of dead and living leukocytes.
Platelet
150,000 to 450,000 Fragment of large cell ( megakaryocyte)
Pus
- mixture of exudates, living and dead white blood cells, pathogens and destroyed tissue cells.
Basophils
< 1%Function allergic reactions; inflammatory reactions.stain with basic dyes and have large, dark blue granules that often obscure the nucleus.
Inguinal nodes
located in groin area. Receive lymph drainage from lower extremities and from external genital organs.
Palatine tonsils
oval, located each side of soft palate. "tonsils"
Vasomotor center
in medulla regulates vasomotor activities
2 main characters of immunity
Inborn immunity, Acquired immunity
PULSE:
results from blood being pumped into the artery by contraction of the left ventricle. Ventricular contraction, Wave of increased pressure,Begins at heart and travels to arteries,
Lymph
fluid that circulates in the lymphatic system, Formed from components of blood plasma,Has less protein than plasma,
Chyle
milky fluid drains from intestinal lacteals, and is formed by combo of fat globules and lymph.
Fever boosts immune system by
stimulating phagocytes, increasing metabolism, and decreasing certain organisms ability to multiply.
Platelets (thrombocytes)
cell fragments participate in blood clotting.
Fever
Increase in body temp. sign that body defenses are at work,When phagocytes are exposed to infecting organisms, they release substances that raise body temperature.
Neutrophils
54%-62% Function: phagocytosis,stain with either acidic or basic dyes and show lavender granules ( most numerous)
Kupffer cells
- located in the lining of the liver sinusoids(blood Channels) (macrophages in some organs given special names)
Lingual tonsils
little mounds of lymphoid tissue at back of tongue.
Specific
they act only against certain agent and no others.
Blood sera
containing antibodies to the A or B antigens are used to test for blood type.
Portal circulation
- Takes blood from veins of stomach, small intestines, spleen, pancreas, gallbladder, colon, rectum, and brings it to the liver.
Fats added to blood
when lymph joins bloodstream.
Serum ( sera)
fluid that remains after clotting has occurred.
Lacteals
specialized lymphatic capillaries.
Hemocytometer
visual counts- ruled slide used to count cells in given volume of blood under microscope.
B
B antigen present
Acquired immunity
develops after birth. May be obtained by natural or artificial means.Acquired may be active or passive.
Hematopoietic stem cells
ancestors of all blood cells. They have potential to develop into any of the blood cell typed produced within the red marrow.
Peyer patches
- part of MALT system- clusters of lymphatic nodules located in the mucous membranes lining the small intestines distal portion.
Buboes
- when they(inguinal nodes) are enlarged. (bubonic plague got its name)
Inflammatory reaction
symptoms: heat, redness, swelling, pain.
Hemapheresis
- separate desired components from donor and return remainder to donor.
Ascending aorta
Left and right coronary arteries, Aortic arch, Brachiocephalic artery, Right subclavian artery, Right common carotid artery, Left common carotid artery, Left subclavian artery
Prothrombinase
substance that triggers the final clotting mechanism,Converts prothrombin in blood to thrombin,Calcium needed for this step.
Functions of lymphatic system
Fluid balance, Protection from infection,Absorption of fats
Formed elements
cells and cell fragments.
Plasma
liquid portion of blood.
Hemostasis;
forms a platelet plug and starts blood clotting. ( coagulation)
Specificity
immunity to one disease does not necessarily cause immunity to another.
AB
AB both antigens present
In emergency
type O can be given to ABO type because the cells lack both A and B antigens. Will not react with either A or B antibodies.
Plycythemia
increase in red cell count
Function of leukocytes:
Clear body of foreign material and cellular debris,Destroy pathogens that invade the body.
Electrophoresis
normal and abnormal types of hemoglobin can be separated by this process,Electric current is passed through liquid that contains the hemoglobin to separate components based on electrical charge.
Abscess
collection of pus localized in one area.
Veins:
thin, they have valves, prevent backflow. Moved by activity, breathing. Veins return blood back to the heart. Veins are dark red-blueish.
Hemostasis
The process that prevents blood loss from the circulation when a blood vessel is ruptured by an injury.
Lymphatic capillaries
One thin layer called endothelium - allows for easy passage of soluble materials and water.
Procoagulants
compounds that promote clotting,Activated when injury occurs.
Agglutination
antiserum causes corresponding red cells to clump together
Cardiac output
- how much you are putting out.
Appendix
Fingerlike tube, Located at First portion of large intestine, Involved in development of immunity.
Granulocytes
show visible granules in the cytoplasm when stained, neutrophils, esophils, basophils.
Hemoglobin
a protein that contains iron.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
(HDN) Rh-positive fetus; anti-Rh antibodies in mothers blood- passes into fetus and destroys fetus's red cells. Baby born with HDN may be saved with transfusion
Fluid balance
blood circulates through the capillaries in the tissues, water and dissolved substances are constantly exchanged between bloodstream and interstitial fluids that bathes the cells.
O
Neither antigens present
Autologous
self originating blood. Donating blood for self use.
Citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1)
solution added to blood in blood banks to keep from clotting.,Blood can be stored for up to 35 days.
Circle of willis
- union of anterior and posterior cerebral arteries.( which are branches of the carotids and the 2 vetebral arteries.) Located in back section- top of head.
Contraction of smooth muscles in the blood vessel wall
Reduces flow of blood and loss from the defect in the vessel wall. (vasoconstriction)
Leukocyte
5,000 to 10,000 Larger than red cell with prominent nucleus that may be segmented (granulocyte) or unsegmented (agranulocyte).
Interferon
interferes with nearby cells so they cannot produce more virus. Stops multiplication and spread of virus.
Circulating lymphocytes live
only 6-8 hours; those that enter the tissues may survive longer, days, months, years.
Most important Type of blood
O Rh-negative- can be used for any patient.
Principle carbohydrate found in plasma
is glucose
Type O
- universal donor.
*Jugular vein
big vein in neck.
Erythrocyte
5 million ,tiny , biconcave disk w/out nucleus (anuclear)
Capsule of spleen
- more elastic than that of the lymph nodes, Contains involuntary muscle. ( contracts and swells),Unusually large blood supply. Soft pulp filters blood,Harbors phagocytes and lymphocytes- which are active in immunity. ,Contains lymphoid tissue.
the aorta - divided into 4 parts
: ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic ( descending), abdominal
Cervical nodes
located in the neck, drain various parts of the head and neck. Often become enlarged during upper respiratory infections.
Vasoconstriction
- get smaller
Whole blood transfusions
May be used for any condition in which there is loss of large volume of blood. Massive hemmorrahage; due to injury, Internal bleeding, bleeding ulcers, Operation that causes serious blood loss, Blood replacement due to treatment of hemolytic disease of newborn.
Leukocytes
-WBC protect against infection
Carotid
- big artery in neck.
Vascular system
Closed system,Blood vessels,Four heart chambers
Immunity
is the final line of defense against disease.
Plasmapheresis
plasma removed and formed elements returned to the donor.
The Reticuloendothelial System
consists of related cells responsible for destruction of worn out blood cells, bacteria, cancer cells and other foreign substances that are potentially harmful to the body.
Lymph node
designed to filter lymph, Sites where lymphocytes of immune system multiply, Work to combat foreign organisms. At this region- other structures including blood vessels and nerves, connect with the node.
Arteries:
are thick, they are muscular, they carry oxygenated blood. 3 layers to artery. Middle is smooth muscle. Allows movement of blood at a higher pressure. Moves away from the heart. moved out by the heart.
Rh Factor
Also known as the D antigen. People who have it are Rh positive.
Nerutrophils and monocytes
engage in phagocytosis.
Platelets (thrombocytes)
smallest of all the formed elements.
Vasodilation
- open- getting bigger
Antigens
- any foreign substance that enters the body and induces an immune response,Most are large protein molecules (some carbohydrate, and lipids),Stimulates the activity of certain lymphocytes classified as T or B cells.
Whole blood
55%- plasma- (91% water, 8% protein, 1% other), 45% formed elements- (0.9% leukocytes, 99.1% erythrocytes)
Movement of lymph
Segment of lymphatic vessels between valves contract rhythmically propelling lymph along. ,Lymph is moved by same mechanisms that promote venous return of blood to the heart.,Muscle contraction during movement compresses lymph vessels and drive lymph forward.,Changes in pressure within the abdominal and thoracic cavities caused by breathing aid in movement of lymph through these cavities.
Thrombin
converts to soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin.
Functions of spleen
Cleansing blood of impurities and cellular debris by filtration and phagocytosis.,Destroys old worn out red blood cells.,Iron and other breakdown products of hemoglobin are carried to the liver by the hepatic portal system go be reused or eliminated from the body, roducing red blood cells before birth.,Serving as reservoir for blood.
Cisternachyli
first part of duct-temporary storage pouch
Iliac arteries and their subdivisions
Common iliac arteries ( left & Right), Internal iliac arteries,External iliac arteries, Femoral artery- huge artery- can bleed out in minutes.Popliteal aertery knee, Tibial arteries, Dorsal pedis- around instep- pulse point- pressure point.
Infection
if the irritation is caused by pathogenic invasion the resulting inflammation is an infection.
Mesanteric
-intestines
Platelets
do not have nuclei or DNA, Do contain active enzymes and mitochondria,Life span 10-days,Essential to blood coagulation; platelets stick together and form a plug that seals the wound.
Fibrin
forms a network of threads that entraps plasma and blood cells to form a clot.
Subclavian
(left & right) right- will give arm a little bit and left will give the left shoulder. Will go to axiallary arteries into arm to give us arterial blood supply.
Megakaryocytes
Not cells themselves, but fragments constantly released from bone marrow cells.
MALT Mucosal
- associated lymphoid tissue- prevents microorganisms from invading deeper tissues.
Agranulocytes
lack visible granules ,Nuclei are round or curved and are not segmented. 2 types: lymphocytes, monocytes
Differential white count
estimation of percentage of each white cell type.
Leucopenia
white count below 5000 cells per mL
Anti -B serum-
blood serum containing antibodies that can destroy red cells with B antigen.
Axillary nodes
located in the axillae (armpits) May become enlarged after infections of upper extremities and the breats. Cancer cells from breats often metastasize to axillary nodes.
Anemia
decrease in red cell count.
Hilum
is the exit point for efferent lymphatic vessels carrying lymph out of the node.
Phagocytosis
Part of second line of defense against invaders ,WBC take in and destroy waste and foreign material. ,Neutrophils and macrophages- travel in blood to infection sites. ,Some macrophages remain fixed - skin, liver, lungs, lymphoid tissues and bone marrow to fight infection and remove debris.
Hemacrit
volume percentage of red cells in whole blood, determined by spinning a blood sample in a high speed
Carotid artery
( left & right)- blood goes up to circle of willis (p255) feeds brain.
Hepatic portal system:
Liver, Carries blood from abdominal organs to liver,Superior mesenteric vein,Splenic vein,Gastric, pancreatic, inferior mesenteric veins
Pharyngeal tonsil
referred to as adenoids. Located behind the nose on the posterior wall of the upper pharynx.
Lymphatic circulation
One way system that begins in the tissues and ends when the lymph joins the blood.

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