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The Lympathic System


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Define Hodgkins disease.
Malignancy of lymph nodes; contains Reed-Sternberg cells.
Define Lymphoma.
Any neoplasm (tumor) of the lymphoid tissue, benign or malignant.
What is Mononucleosis?
Viral disease (aka Kissing disease) common in adolescents and young adults; Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, which attacks B lymphocytes.
Define Non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
Includes all cancers of lymphoid tissues except Hodgkins disease. Involves uncontrolled multiplication and metastasis of undifferentiated lymphocytes; 5th most common cancer.
What is the sentinel node?
The 1st node that receives lymph drainage from a body area suspected of being cancerous.
Which two ducts receive lymph from the body?
Right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct
How is lymphatic flow maintained?
By skeletal muscle contraction, pressure changes in thorax. Backflow prevented by valves.
What type of cells may spread through the body via the lymphatic stream?
Pathogens and cancer cells.
What type of cells are found in lymphoid tissues?
Lymphocytes (T cells or B cells), plasma cells, macrophages and reticular cells that form the lymphoid tissue stroma.
What type of tissue is contained in lymphoid tissue?
Reticular connective tissue.
What is the function of lymphoid tissue?
To house macrophages and lymphocytes.
What are lymph nodes?
Principal lymphoid organs that are discrete encapsulated structures containing reticular tissue. Lymph nodes filter lymph and help activate immune system.
What makes up a lymph node?
Fibrous capsule, cortex and medulla.
What type of cells are found in the cortex?
What type of cells are found in the medulla?
How does lymph circulate within lymph nodes?
Lymph enters on convex side via afferent lymphatic vessels, enters subcapsular sinus that goes through cortex, medulla. Exits at hilus via efferent vessels.
What are the 2 functions of lymph nodes?
To filter microorganisms entering lymph, preventing them from being delivered to the blood, and to help activate immune system.
What type of cells do the spleen, thymus, tonsils, and Peyers patches contain?
Macrophages and lymphocytes.
Where is the spleen located within the body?
On the left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm, it curls around the anterior aspect of the stomach.
How does the spleen get blood?
From the large splenic artery and vein, which enter and exit the hilus.
What are some functions of the spleen?
- extracting aged, defective blood cells and platelets from blood
- its macrophages remove debris and foreign matter from blood
What are 3 additional functions of the spleen?
Storing breakdown products of RBCs for later reuse and releasing others to blood for processing by liver.

Site of erythrocyte production in fetus.

Stores blood platelets.
What is white pulp?
Areas composed mostly of lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers.
What is red pulp?
All remaining splenic tissue, that is, the venous sinuses (blood sinusoids) and the splenic cords, regions of reticular connective tissue exceptionally rich in macrophages.
What is the purpose of white pulp?
Immune functions of the spleen.
What is the purpose of red pulp?
Disposing of worn-out RBCs and bloodborne pathogens.
What type of tissue does the thymus develop from?
What hormones does the thymus secrete?
Thymosin and Thymopoietin.
What is an important function of the thymus?
It causes T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent (function against specific pathogens in the immune response).
Describe the thymus functional changes during aging.
During childhood, increases in size when most active. During adolescence, growth stops and starts to atrophy. By old age, replaced by fibrous, fatty tissue.
How does the thymus differ from other lymphatic organs?
Is only lymphoid organ that doesn't fight antigens.

Second, the thymus' stroma consists of epithelial cells.
Where are the palatine tonsils located?
On either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity.
What two things should you know about palatine tonsils?
Largest tonsils and ones most often infected.
Where are the lingual tonsils located?
At the base of the tongue.
Where are the pharygeal tonsils located?
In the posterior wall of the nasopharynx.
What are Peyer's patches?
Large isolated clusters of lymphoid follicles, (similar to tonsils), located in wall of distal portion of the small intestine.
Name the lymphoid organs.
Lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus, and Peyer's patches of the intestine.
What is the function of T cells?
To manage immune response and directly attack and destroy foreign cells.
What is the function of B cells?
B cells protect the body by producing plasma cells.
Afferent lymphatic vessels
Vessels leading toward lymph nodes.
Subcapsular sinus
Large, baglike sinus leading into a number of smaller sinuses.
Indented region on concave side of node leading into efferent vessels.
Efferent lymphatic vessels
Vessels going away from lymph nodes.
What type of tissue does all lymphoid organs (except thymus) develop from?
Mesenchymal cells of mesoderm.
What is an antigen?
Anything the body perceives as foreign (bacteria, viruses, cancer cells).
Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue (MALT)
Small lymphoid tissues found in digestive and respiratory tracts.
The function of MALT is:
Protects digestive and respiratory tracts from attacks of foreign matter entering mucosa-lined cavities.
The function of Peyer's patches is:
To destroy bacteria in appendix and generate Memory lymphocytes for long term memory in intestine.
The function of tonsils is:
Guard throat by "inviting" bacteria into lymphatic system to destroy them.
What is the first lymphoid organ to appear in human development?
The thymus.
The function of the spleen is:
To provide a large, blood-filled site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response; cleanse blood.
What are plasma cells?
Daughter cells that secrete antibodies into the blood.
What immunocompetent cell produces plasma cells?
B cells (or B lymphocytes)
The lymph node has 2 histologically distinct regions; name them.
The cortex and medulla.
Entry of lymph into lymphatic capillaries is promoted by what?
ONe-way minivalves formed by overlapping endothelial cells.
What are lateals?
Highly specialized lymphatic capillaries that absorb digested fats from intestine.
What channels (small to large) does lymph flow through?
Lymphatic capillaries, collecting vessels, trunks, ducts.
Lymph nodes are found in which body regions?
Cervical, inguinal, axillary (under arms).
What are the components of MALT (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue)?
Peyer's patches, appendix, tonsilslymphoid follicles in bronchi.

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