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Gram stain, shape
Negative, rod
Aerobic or anaerobic or???
Facultative aerobic
3 groups??
1) Humans only
2) Adapted for a particular species
3) Paratyphoids - no particular host preference... Infects both humans and animals
2 species are??
S. bongori
S. enterica
S. bongori infects?
Cold blooded animals
S. enterica infects?
Mostly warm blooded
Naming of salmonella (3 things)
1) Disease syndrome or animal first isolated from
2) Place first reported
3) Antigenic formula
Antigenic structure (Kauffmann-White scheme)
O-somatic capsule
Vi-Capsular antigen
H (phases 1 and 2) Flagellar antigen -heat labile
Phase variation (antigenic) is?
H antigen exists in 2 phases. An indiv bacterial cell can have flagella in either phase 1 or 2. Bact originally in one phase can switch during multiplication.

Non-motile strains don't demonstrate phase variation

Need to ID both phases.
H-O variation
Loss of H antigen or flagella

Usually 1 direction only

Motile -> Non motile

Spontanous change is rare and often irreversible

Genetic material for enzyme that synthesizes flagella is lost/altered.
S-R variation
Smooth to rough form

Known to occur in practically all bacteria

Gradual change

Rough organisms give non specific agglutination.

Low virulence - can be vax strain.

No change in flagellar antigen
O variation
change in lipopolysaccharides on surface
V-W variation
loses/changes outernost polysaccharide layerantigen
Salmonella ID - selective media, test
MacConkey, Brilliant Green, XLD

API, TSI, Indole, urea
Tan (non lactose fermentor)
Brilliant Green
red (like Citrobacter, E.coli is grn)
Purple (Citrobacter/E. coli grn)

Colonization of lower intestine (ilieum and cecum)

Mucosal invasion (cytotoxin)

Acute inflammation (ulceration, prostoglandin, enterotoxins, cytokines)

Activation of adenyl cyclase (increase cAMP)

Fluid production (lg and sm bowel)

Antigenic phaes variation

sequestration of nutritional factors

Resistance to serum killing

Antimicrobial resistance

Pathogenicity islands
Leading cause of ??
Human foodborne illness worldwide (1-5 million cases in US yearly
Human salmonella serotypes
S paratyphi A

S paratyphi B

S paratyphi C

S typhi

Also, non-host adapted Salmonella strains

Deck Info