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Child Health


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child's physician provides preventive health maintenance for healthy children/medical care for acutely/chronically ill children
children individuals with bodies/minds grow amazing rate
first year of life newborn grows from 7-pound 20-inch totally-dependent to toddler weight increased by 200% length by 50%*** learned to communicate ambulate eat drink play wants and needs known
subsequent years growth in stature abilities not as rapid dramatic but mental physical emotional development is
from infancy to adolescence parents must
weigh and measure regularly
receives immunizations
routine checkups developing well
cared for when sick or hurt
able to handle pressures life brings
pediatricians healthcare pros provide comprehessive services children all ages
specialized care for premature babies routine chekups well-child care
have expertise and experience help parents give children right start healthy life
infants and children progess through series growth stages may encounter physical emotional*** challenges common problems
growth development includes not only physical changes occur from infancy to adolescence ssome of changes in emotionss personality*** behavior thinking speech develop understand interact with world around
root reflex***
corner of mouth is stroked touched turn head open mouth follow root in direction of stroking helps find breast/bottle
suck reflex***
roof of mouth touched with breast/bottle begin to suck starts 36 weeks premies weak or immature sucking ability born prior to development of reflex hand to mouth reflex accompanies rooting/sucking suck on fingers/hands
Moro reflex***
startle reflex loud sound movement throws back head throws out arms/legs cries puills arms legs back in sometimes own cries startle initiating this reflex until 5-6 months old
tonic neck reflex
head turned to one side arm stretches out opposite arm bends up at elbow fencing position until 6-7 months

grasp reflex***
holds on to finger when placed in palm
Babinski reflex****
sole of foot firmly stroked big toe bends back toward top of foot and othe toes fan out normal until 2 years
step reflex****
walking or dance reflex when held upright feet touching solid surface
baby delivered umbilical cord cut/clamped near navel*** ends dependence placenta for oxygen nutrition
before birth lungs not used to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide need less blood supply
change in pressure*** in lungs help close fetal connections redirect blood flow
baby breathes air change in pressure*** in lungs close fetal connections redirect blood flow
fetal cirulation sends blood supply away from lungs
blood pumped to lungs help exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide
sometimes excess amounts of fluid** in lungs massage and stroking skin helps bring fluid up to be suctioned nose and mouth by cry***
Apgar test health assesment scoring system 1 and 5 minutes after birth
A activity muscle tone
P pulse rate
G grimace reflex irritability
A appearance skin coloe
R respiration
7-10 normal&***
4-6*** resuscitation oxygen monitoring
3 or less*** immediate
resuscitation lifesaving techniques
wet from amniotic fluid warm blankets heat lamps knitted hat skin-to-skin on mom's chest ab keep baby warm
physical exam
signs baby healthy in min/hrs in delivery room or nursery
measurements weight length head circumference
determine if measurements normal for number of weeks of pregnancy small/underweight/large babies special attention/care
cord care
cleansing umbilical cord stump purple antiseptic dye*** prevents infection
when temp*** stabilized first bath
taken and recorded in medical record
before baby leaves delivery area id bracelets wrist/ankle
mom on wrist identical numbers
vaginal delivery stay with mom weight length meds*** bath in mom's room placed in mom's arms quickly
first hour or two after birth alert*** wide awake phase turn to sound of mom's voice 8-12 inches vision mom's arm to face
begin breast feeding first hour/two meds*** anesthesia to mom during labor delivery affect sucking ability most can breast*** feed in first few hours
initial feeding stimulate breast milk production causes contracion of mom's uterus prevents excessive bleeding
can be awake for surgery regional anesthesia epidural,spinal part of body numbed
baby checked by nursery nurseor pediatrician right after delivery in operating room
mom awake*** rarely need general anesthesia ***difficulty clearing lung fluid and mucus** extra suctioning of nose mouth throat needed sometimes windpipe
once checked nurse wrap baby warmly brought to mom watched in nursery for short time weighing meds performed there
breast feeding begins first hours in recovery room
breast feeding can be done right away just like in a vaginal*** delivery
vaccinations shots given to infants children different ages keep from developing childhood diseases serious complications/fatal
Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices, American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians approved series of vaccinations
MMR ***** measles mumps rubella/German measles
Polio****** vaccine IPV
DTaP****** diphtheria tetanus/lockjaw pertussis/whooping cough
Hib***** vaccine Haemophilus influenzae type b/spinal meningitis
HBV****** hepatitis B
Pneumococcal vaccine****** PCV7
pneumonia infection in blood and meningitis
Varicella *******
airborne irritants allergens trigger release of histamine****=inflammation fluid productions linings nasal passages sinuses eyelids
family history 20% children 15-30 percent adolescents 75percent children with asthma have allergic rhinitis
food allergy
abnormal**** response of body to certain food affects immune system different than food intolerance
chronic inflammatory disease airways sensitive to allergens
lining of airways swollen/inflamed
muscles surround airways tighten
production mucus increased mucus plugs
airways narrow difficult for air go in and out of lungs
disease virus swelling in airways problems breathing stridor=high-pitched sound heard when breathes in inspiration
croup caused by
respiratory syncytial virus RSV
influenza virus
upper respiratory infection URI
common cold*****/most common illnesses more doctor visits absences from school/work
one-year period people in US suffer one billion colds
virus inflames membranes lining of nose throat result 200 different viruses
rhinoviruses/coronaviruses cause majority colds
viral infection upper respiratory system nose, bronchial tubes lungs****
highly contagious viral infection most severe illnesses of winter season 10-20 percent pop contract flu each year
fever**** 100.4 degrees Farenheit and higher
highly childhood contagious**** 95% adults have had it 4 million every year varicella-zoster virus VZV
fifth*** disease
viral illness results viral exanthem=rash or skin eruption spread from one child to another direct contact discharge nose throat also infected blood mod contagious no high fever
inflammation liver results liver cell damage destruction
Lyme disease
LD multi-stage multi-system bacterial*** infection caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi spiral shaped bacterium transmitted by tick bite
mono glandular fever swollen lymph glands chronic fatigue Epstein Barr virus EBV adolescents symptoms disappeared EBV dormant in throat blood cells lifetime reactivate periodically
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
RMSF infection by infected tick********
viral illness =viral exanthem=rash or skin eruption contagious high fever rash develops fever decreases
chronic disorder of hair follicles and sebaceous**** glands=clogged=pimples, cysts
areas discolored raised**** skin apparant at birth/few weeks malformed pigment cells or blood vessels 10 in every 100 babies vascular birthmarks blood vessels
contact dermatitis
physiological***** reaction skin contact substances irritants 80% allergens allergic response 20%
seborrheic**** dermatitis cradle cap
infant fine white scales on scalp diaper area face neck trunk clears within first year
diaper dermatitis******
diaper rash
red scaling rarely ulcerated 9-12 months or begin at 2 months
superficial infection bacteria*** lesions red base open crusty honey-color contagious reinfecting
tiny insects*** infest skin anywhere on body intense itching contagious body contact clothes
3 types of lice
head lice
body lice
pubic lice
poison ivy/poison oak
3 Native American plants
poison ivy
poison oak
poison sumak****
plants cause allergic reaction in 85 percent of pop to be allergic first sensitized to oils then next contact rash
visible reaction skin's exposure to UV radiation invisible****** rays part of sunlight
ultraviolet rays invisible**** damage to skin excessive/multiple sunburns premature aging of skin/cancer
skin cancer most common type of cancer in US exposure to sun leading cause skin cancer
non-cancerous skin growths papillomavirus******** common in children but any age spread to other body parts/people 60types papillomavirus go away without treatment
pink***** eye inflammation of conjunctiva of eye membrane lines inside of ey membrane covers eye
hordeolum stye****
inflammation of eyelash children more
bruising of eye
black**** eye trauma to eye tissue bruised
otitis media OM
inflammation in middle ear*** result of cold sore throat respiratory infection
otitis externa
swimmer's**** ear inflammation external ear canal fungi bacteria water trapped in canal source for growth
dry climates winter months dry heat in homes cause drying cracking crusting in nose
children outgrow tendency for nosebleeds during teenage years
cavities**** air-filled pockets near nasal passage lined with mucous membranes 4 typess
ethmoid sinus
inside face bridge of nose continues at birth and grows
maxillary sinus
inside face cheek area present at birth grows
frontal sinus
inside face forhead develops at about 7 years
sphenoid sinus
deep in face behind nose develops at adolescence
infection of sinuses near nose occur after allergic inflammation/cold
infections in throat cause inflammation
pharyngotonsillitis=tonsils and throat
3-4 months old prolonged excessive crying
decrease in frequency bowel movements fewer than 3/week
passage of hard dry bm
bm difficult/painful
waterey**** stool increased frequency
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
digestive***** disorder gastric acid stomach to esophagus return of acidic stomach juices common in infants
section intestines protrudes**** abdominal muscles soft bulge under skin
around belly-button/umbilical hernia
groin area inguinal hernia
remove skin end of penis foreskin****
urinary incontinence enuresis
bedwetting**** accidental urination developmentally able control bladder
urinary tract infections UTI
bacterial infection urinary tract
head injury
most common disability/death children bump/bruise=contusion
cut concussion fractured skull internal bleeding damage to brain
injury to head loss of awareness or alertness minutes/hours traumatic event
bruise to brain bleeding swelling inside brain
skull fracture
break****** in skull bone
nerve cells electrial ******activity communicate part of brain burst of abnormal electrical ssignal temp interrupts normal brain function 3-5% before first birthday
partial complete break in bone open/bone visible through skin or closed/broken skin intact
jumper's knee patellar tendonitis tenderness below knee upper shin patellar tendon pulled on inflammation pain jumping
little leaguers' elbow/shoulder
pain in elbow/shoulder after activity repetitive overhead throwing damage inflammation to growth plates bones in arm
osteochondritis dissecans
knee pain swelling
cartilage in knee joint separates from joint surface hereditary/metabolic
Server's disease
heel pain limping after running rep. run/jump Achilles tendon pull on heel bone
shin splints
pain tenderness over shin area
excess run/jump on hard surfaces improper shoes
sinding-larsen-johansson disease
knee pain after jumping fracture of kneecap rep. extension patellar tendon in knee tendon pulls from bone
spondylolisthesis back pain excess low back part of vertebra in low back slips forward on vert below it football linemen gymnasts ice skaters
back pain
excess flexion extension of lower back
overuse injuries lead to stress ******fractures wek spots or small cracks in bone continuous overuse feet after training no swelling but pain
minor trauma muscles ligaments tendons******
contusions bruises
common sprain/strain ankle
3 ligaments
anterior talofibular ligament
posterior talofibular "
calcaneofibular ligament
contusion bruise
injury to soft-tissue blunt force kick fall or blow pain swelling discoloration
wrenching twisting****** injury to ligament ankless knees wrists
muscle tendon***** overuse force stretching
heat cramps
mildest form of heat injury muscle cramps/spasms during/after exercise sweating in high heat
heat stroke
severe form heat illness heat-regulating system overwhelmed exessive heat life-threatening emergency immediate med attention
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorer ADHD
behavior disorder inattention impulsivity hyperactivity by age 7
anorexia nervosa
AN self-starvation low vbody weight less 85% normal weight height age distorted body image****** intense fear gaining weight
bulimia nervosa
overeating binging purging***** self-induced vomiting laxatives enemas meds urine fasting excess exercise
substance abuse
drug problems distress legal problems interferes friendship family relationship illegal substances abuse of legal alcohol most common
substance dependence*****
continued*** use drugs/alcohol with problems increased tolerance withdrawal symptoms withdrawal from social recreational activities
chemical dependence
compulsive******* use of chemicals drugs/alcohol inability to stop despite problems
learning disorder
difficulty in academic area written expression read/math below what expected for age ed level intelligence*****
reading disorder
reads below expected level for age grade intelligence difficulty understanding word recognition confuse words look similar dyslexia
mathematics disorders
problems skills related to numbers counting copying numbers adding carrying numbers multiplication
disorder written expression
difficulty writing skills grammar punctuation spelling paragraph org composing written info
scary dreams***** awaken children afraid to go back to sleep no known reason
night terrors
partial waking from sleep screaming kicking panic sleep walking thrashing mumbling
occur within 2 hours going to sleep harmless ends in deep sleep normal until 6 yrs.

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