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Immunity 2


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the word immune comes from immuno meaning________.
______imununity is an inborn capacity for resisting disease
lysosome in tears is an example of ________ immunity
acquired immunity begins after _____________
_________immunity arises from anexposure to antigens and often follows adisease
naturally aquired immunity
____________imunity results from an inoculation of toxoid or vaccine
artificially acquired active
naturally aquired _________immunity stems from the passage of IgA across the placenta .
artificially acqired passive immunity is induced by an injection of antibodies taken from an__________
memory cells residing in the ________ tissues are responsible for the production of __________ that yield naturally aquired active immunity.
lymphoid tissue,antibodies
viral vaccines consist of ________and _________virues
attentuated ,inactivated
immunizing agents that stimulate imminity to toxins are called_________.
subunit vaccine is called
second generation vaccine
another form of vaccine is the third generation vaccine or the _______
the synthetic vaccine uses _______technolgy
__________ is called anti serum or hyperimmune serum or gamma globulin
immune globulin
substances called ______ increase the eficiency of a vaccine or toxoid by increasing the availavility of the antigen in the lymphatic system
_____ antibodies remain with the child for 3 months
maternal antibodies are passed to the newborn through the first milk or __________>>>_________is the predominant antibody
Passive immunity must be taken with caution because the immune system could recocnizeforeign serum proteins as antigens and synthesizes antibidues against them in an ______.
allergic reaction
antigen antibodyinteractions studied under baboratory conditions are known as _____________
serological reactions
If a patient had anabornally high of a specific __________in the serum then a suspected disease agent was present
the reactants in a serological reaction consist of an antigen and a ____________.the nature of ____ must be known .then put on slide and observe reaction
serum sample,at least one
A rise in the ___________ of a certain antibody also indicates that person hasa case of that disese
__________reactions are serological reactions involving thousand sof antigens and antibody molecules cross linked att multiple determinant sites to form a structure called a ___________
In _____-, the antibody and the antigen are layered over each other in a thin tube .
a visible mass forms at the interface or at the bottom of the tube. bloodstains
Fluid precipitation
In _________precipitation the diffusion of antigens and ab's takes place through a semisolicd solution agarose zone of ___________.
gel ,,zone of equivolence
immunoelectrophoresis is a _________sreological reaction
________ i swhere emulsions of unknown bacteria are added to drops of known antibldies on a slide and the mixture is abseved for clumping if none occurs other ABs are tried till right one found .
_______ aglutination is done when antigens are adsrbedonto the srface of latex spheres,polystyrene part.
_____ is used prior to blood transfusions
coombes test is used to detect _______invovled in hemolytic diseases
rh antibodies
the ________ test uses the patients serum ,,,a preparation of antigen and a complement of derived from guinea pigs.
compliment fixation test
a state of increased hypersensitivity to an antigen ariaing from a previos exposure to that antigen
hypersensitivity may involve cell mediated or ______ immunity
antibody hypersensitivity could occurs within ______-
cell-mediated immunity could take _________
2 3 days
__________ or type I hypeersensitivity can be life threatening .anaphylaxis a seies ofevents in which chemical substances induce vigoroous contractions of the body's _______.
anaphylitic,,,smooth muscle
allergists refer to this first dose of antigen as the _____________
sensitizing dose
after the sensitizing dose is admitted, the immune systemresponds and ______ revert to plasma cells which produce _____,this antibody enters and fixes itself to the surface of mast cells and basopnils.
B-ymphocytes IgE
________cells aare connective tissue cells near the blood vessels and resp and GI.and are filled with _________
mast cells,histimine
the symptoms of anaphalaxis occurs rapidly on subsequent exposures to the _______.allergens unite to IGE on surfaces of mastcells and basophils and appear to form a bridge the union cause adenlycyclase inhibitor .___________works against it.
_________once called slow reacting dubstance of anaphylaxis result whin histimine from the dellular granules of white bliid cells activates an enzyme which realeases aracjidonic acid this are _________contractors
leukotrienes, smooth muscle
sometimme _____ antibodies block allergens before tjhey can reach sensitized cells
blocking antibodies or IGG
type III _____________hypersensitivity is a cell damageing reaction that occurs when IgG reacts with antigens on the surfaces of cells ,cells affected are known as ________.
cytotoxic ,target cells
example of cytotoxic is the transfusion________ arising from the mixing of incompatible blood types.
when an rh neg woman marries an rh pos man there is a 3-1 chance of an rh pos child and prob. comes when there bloods mix.
rh disease
rhogam is the treatment for hemolytic disease
rh disease
_____________ results from antibodies produced against such drugs as aspirin or etc. effect can be impaired __________or __________
thrombocytopenia,,blood clotting or hemorrages
type III complex hypersensitivity developes when antibodies combine with antigens and form aggregates that accumulate in____________or tissue surfaces these draw __________that release ________-enzymes
blood vessels, neutrophils,lysosomes,,IGGanIgm
type IV cellular hypersensitivity is an exaggeration of the process of c___________.these involve lymphokines ,this is a delayed reacrion where the efffects are not seen for 24 to 72 hrs.
cellmediated immunity
infection allergy symptoms are ____an ___________,,,,,,,,and ___________developes after exposure to a broad array urushiol (poison ivy exm.)
iduration and erythema,,,contact dermatitis
class II MHC proteins are important in ____________.class I MHC proteins are on every_____ in the body and help define unqiue tissue.
the recognition of nonself antigens,,,cell
antirejection mechanism include________drugs ,which prevent the multiplication of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes.
antimitotic drugs azathioprine ,cyclosporin
another means of diminshing rejection is to introduce __________antibodies.lymphocytes from the transplant recipient are injected into animals then introduced into patient and the antibodies interact with local lymphocytes.
antilymphocyte antibodies
the time required to kill a population of microorganismsat a given temp.
thermal death time
the ------test is used as the standard of disinfecting
phenol coefficient test
the _______are a group of highly reactive elements whose atoms have seven electrons.______an _________are used alot
halogens,chlorine ,and iodine
__________are iodine detergent complexes that release iodine over a long period of time presurgical scrubbing
phenol derivatives called _____have a greater germicidal activity and lower toxicity than the parent compound
_______was used in dial soap
a bisphenol in wide spread use is _______
silver nitrate is droped in the eyes of infants to protect against ________
plastic petri dish and syringe uses ________to help sterilization
ethylene oxide

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