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Biology (Concepts & Connections) Ch 9-Vol Cab


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Genetically determined classes of human blood that are based on the presence or absence of carbohydrates A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The ABO blood group phenotypes, also called blood types, are A, B, AB, and O.
ABO blood groups
A form of human dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele; the homozygous condition is lethal
A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus
In human genetics, an individual who is heterozygous at a given genetic locus, with one normal allele and one potentially harmful recessive allele. The heterozygote is phenotypically normal for the character determined by the gene but can pass on the har
(CVS)A technique for diagnosing genetic and congenital defects in a fetus by removing and analyzing a small sample of the fetal portion of the placenta.
chorionic villus sampling
A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
chromosome theory of inheritance
A phenotypic situation in which the two alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
The cross-fertilization of two different varieties of an organism or of two different species; also called hybridization
A genetic disorder that occurs in people with two copies of a certain recessive allele; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated.
cystic fibrosis
An experimental mating of individuals in which the inheritance of two traits is tracked.
dihybrid cross
In a heterozygote, the allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype.
dominant allele
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a genetic cross-fertilization.
F1 generation
Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
F2 generation
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation
The genetic makeup of an organism.
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele, characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.
An individual that functions as both male and female in sexual reproduction by producing both sperm and eggs.
Having two different alleles for a given genetic character
Having two identical alleles for a given trait.
A human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele; characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nervous system; usually fatal 10–20 years after the onset of symptoms
Huntington's disease
The offspring of two different varieties of plants or animals.
A type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parental varieties.
incomplete dominance
Genes that are located on the same chromosome.
linked genes
Referring to a plant species that has both staminate and carpellate flowers on the same individual.
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. A monohybrid results from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles. For example, parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid genotype of Aa.
The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for parental.
P generation
The physical and physiological traits of an organism.
The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.
An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character.
polygenic inheritance
A general rule in inheritance that when gametes form during meiosis, each pair of alleles for a particular characteristic segregate independently; also known as Mendel's second law of inheritance.
principle of independent assortment
A general rule in inheritance that individuals have two alleles for each gene and that when gametes form by meiosis, the two alleles separate, and each resulting gamete ends up with only one allele of each gene; also known as Mendel's first law of inheri
principle of segregation
A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.
punnett square
In a heterozygote, the allele that is completely masked in the phenotype.
recessive allele
With respect to two given genes, the number of recombinant progeny from a mating divided by the total number of progeny. Recombinant progeny carry combinations of alleles different from those in either of the parents as a result of independent assortment
recombination frequency
red-green color blindness
red-green color blindness
A rule stating that the probability of an event occurring when there are two or more alternative ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of the different ways.
rule of addition
A rule stating that the probability of a compound event is the product of the separate probabilities of the independent events.
rule of multiplication
The fusion of sperm and egg that are produced by the same individual organism.
A gene located on a sex chromosome.
sex-linked gene
A technique for examining a fetus in the uterus. High-frequency sound waves echoing off the fetus are used to produce an image of the fetus.
ultrasound imaging

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