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Produce dramatic increases in size, especially in stems and fruit.
food chain
series of links between different organisms in ecosystems based of feeding relationships
a cell division that produces four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. the products of meiosis are gametes (eggs of sperm)
sustainable use
resources should be consumed no faster than they can be regenerated naturally
when an animal goes into a long term torpor, by hibernating they reduce their energy requirements and do not need to eat
chemical communication
communication between cells by the release of chemicals that interact with specific target cells
in vitro fertilisation (IVF)
the egg and sperm join to form a zygote in labratory glassware
is a plant adapted to a saline environment. they are able to regualte water loss and control salt accumulation in leaves
when animals allow their body temperature to drop and they become inactive or dormant for a period of time
the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle
circannual rhythms
yearly rhythms
the system formed by a community of living organisms together with their physical surroundings
the oldest part and central core of the brain beginning where the spinal chord enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions
The lobe that controls involuntary actions and refines muscle movement.
the concentration of substances such as toxins along food chains in ecosystems
bud that lies under the bark of stem or root of a plant, they are able to sprout after damage to the plant
the basic unit of a nervous system; a cell specialised to receive conduct and transmit information
consumers that break down dead material
the number of individuals living in the area
cerebral cortex
Layer covering the surface of the brain. Involves perception, language, memory, and thinking.
ecological grouping of different kinds of organisms that live together in a particular place at a particular time and interact with one another
Alternation of generations
the alternation of hiploid and diploid stages in the life cycles of eukaryotes
peripheral nervous system
all nerves outside the CNS, comprised of sensory and motor systems
climax community
the community that may be finally reached by succession
the conversion of organic nitrogeneous compounds that cannot be used by plants into inorganic compounds that can be used by plants
the active process of maintaining a particular physiological parameter relavtively constant is being...
eat small particles of dead plant and animal organic matter that accumulates as detritus
misalignment detectors
monitor the actual factor of the internal environment that is being controlled
refers to the coordinated activities of an animal that are produced in response to internal or external stimuli
primary succession
commences with the colonisation of a bare area, which has not been colonised before
circadium rhythms
daily cycles
produce messages controlling sleep, hunger; is the link between the nervous and endocrine systems
trial and error learning
Learning that takes place through the application of possible solutions to a problem.
How acidic or basic a substance is, measured on a on a scale of 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very basic). (seven is neutral)
region of rapidly dividing cells that produces secondary growth in woody plants
a swelling at the base stem that is a source of dormant buds
lunar cycles
cycles that coincide with the waning and waxing of the moon
in plants: a state of reduced metabolism, occurs in seeds and decidious plants during winter
secondary succession
follows disturbance of an existing biological community
Tolerance range
the range of conditions that an oragnism can survive in
change in direction of plant growth in repsonse to light
stimulation of a plant or plant part to grow by exposure to cold.
nerve pathway that produces an automatic, rapid response to a stimulus
effector cell
a muscle or gland cell that resonds to stimuli ; short-lived daughter cell of lymphocytes
dominant species
the most obvious species (either by population or body size)
oragnic matter formed from the breakdown of dead plants and animals, makes a dark layer in topsoil
a cell encased in a protective coat that enables it to survive in unfavourable conditions. (in plants they are the haploid producers of meiosis)
allow body temperature to vary widely depending on need
observational learning
type of learning in which new responses are made as a result of watching the performance of others
the taking of a sample of amniotic fluid, containing fetal cells, at about 14-15 weeks pregnancy. this tests the risk of abnormalities at birth
an animal that defends a certain territory is...
all of the surrounding things, conditions, and influences affecting the growth or development of living things.
one organism (the parasite) benefits and the other is harmed
a learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established (duckings imprinting on their mother)
refractory period
sets the limit on the maximum rate at which action potentials can be generated.
hormone that promotes growth, cell elongation, fruit development
self-sustaining system
can be maintained into the future largely without inputs from outside the system
hormone that promotes leaf abscission and fruit ripening
chorionic villus sampling
method of obtaining fetal cells early in pregnancy for analysis.
any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body
grow in hot dry environments and are adapted to conserve moisture and to prevent leaf temperature from rising too much
occurs during action potential
inter-specific competition
struggle between organisms of different species for the same supply of food, water, space or nest sites that is in limited supply
autotrophs and the first link in the food chain.
the growing tip of a plant
active at night
change of an aquatic ecosystem from one that is less fertile to one that is richer in nutrients
disturbance detectors
respond to changes that are likely to cause a change in the factor of the internal environment that is being controlled
consumers that eat other consumers
counter-current flow
passage of fluids in close proximity and in opposite directions, allows more efficient of exchange between fluids
sympathetic division
the part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats
the relationship between species where one partner benefits but the other neither benefits or is harmed
organisms arriving from outside the population
organisms that either eat producers
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
carrying capacity
the maximum population that can be sustained in an ecosystem before organisms run out of environmental resources
sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the fusion of two gametes (egg and sperm) which are the haploid products of meiosis
the transfer of pollen from one flower to another
produces very rapid multiplication of plant
describes the body's ability to maintain internal stable conditions even while the outside is changing
aquatic vascular plant that has few stomata and large intercellular air spaces to provide buoyancy and retain gases
sense organs
organs that recieve stimuli: eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and skin,
innate behaviour
any behaviour that is not learned
insight learning
the process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs
Biotic factors
availability of mates or the impact of predators
carry messages between different individuals; attracts individuals of opposite sexes
the ability to store and retreive information about past events
chemical communication
the release of chemicals into the environment that transmit information to those animals that have the appropriate receptors for receiving the chemical signal
the transfer of information from one animal to another
the formation of ammonia by bacteria in soil or in root nodules
penetration of egg by sperm and fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei
Abiotic limiting factors
soil, rainfall, temperature, salinity and nest sites
the partnership between two different kinds of organisms where both of them benefit
Asexual reproduction
one parents giving rise to a new individual from its body cells, offspring are genetically identical to their parent
specialised consumers that live and feed on the surface of, or inside, other organisms, causing them harm
net primary productivity
the rate of accumulation of producer tissue
substance produced by a particular group of cells and transported through an organism to sites where affects the function of the cells that capable of responding
cultural exchange
the passage of information from generation to generation by non-genetic means
biogeochemical cycles
involve the transfer of nutrients from the physical environment to food chains and back again`
a plant response in wich the direction of the respnse is related to the direction from which the stimulus comes. (positive or negative)
negative feedback system
a control system where the response produced due to a particular stimulus reduces the size of the original disturbance; leads to homeostasis
a neuron that transmits information from one neuron to another
division of the nucleus which leads to identical copies of each chromosome being passed from mother cell to two daughter cells
change in direction of plant growth in response to contact with a surface
An animal whose body regulates its own temperature by controlling the internal heat it produces
Fatty substance that forms an insulating layer (myelin sheath) around some axons in vertebrates
action potential
a local change in the electrical potential of the plasma membrane that is conducted along the length of the neuron
hermaphrodites (plants)
having both stamens and carpels in the same flower
target cell
a cell with the appropriate receptors to respond to a particular chemical signalling molecule
primary productivity
the rate at which producers convert light energy to chemical energy as new plant growth
broad categories of ecological communties in the world based on climate
the innate ability to complete a specific behaviour pattern
self fertilisation
(in hermaphrodites) fertilisation of eggs by sperm produced in the same individual
tactile communication
communication by touch
pituitary gland
the master gland of the endocrine system
exponential growth
the rapid increase of a population
specific signal, called a sign stimulus, that results in an innate behavioural response
theory of how communities and their environments change, with one community replacing another in an orderly sequence over time
where organisms live
autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
consumers that eat dead animals
abscisic acid
a growth inhibiting plant hormone that controls a plant's responses to stress and dormancy
chemicals that decomposers cannot break down
the gamete-forming haploid stage in the life cycle of a plant
apical dominance
Concentration of growth at the tip of a plant shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.
living together of two organisms in close partnership
any of a class of plant hormones that promote cell division and delay the senescence of leaves
indirect development
development of an animal that involves an intermediate freeliving larval for before the adult form is reached
food web
more than one hundred food chains linked together
the gradual fading of a response to a stimulus that proves to be safe or irrelevant
a layer of non-cellular material on the outer surface of a plant or animal, impermeable to water
social behaviour
related to the interactions with other organisms, such as the activites of a group of bee's
useful for describing changes in communities that appear to form zones
life cycle
sequence of changes in the growth and development of sexually reproducing organism from one generation to the next
the type of place where an organism lives
trophic level
each level in a food web
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord of vertebrates
Circadian rhythm
natural cycle of about 24 hours observed in animals or plants
external fertilisation
fertilisation that takes place outside the body
direct development
pattern of animal development in which an individual is hatched or born in it's adult form
sybotic relationship between a soil fungas and a plant (the host).
Limiting factor
an environmental requirement that is in limited supply
associative learning
the association of a new signal (ringing a bell) with an innate signal (tasting food) that triggers a particular behavioural response (salivating)
the night-day cycle to which many organism respond
endocrine gland
a gland that produces hormones into the bloodstream
active during the day
ecological pyramid
diagram to show the decline in energy of the mass of plant and animal tissue (biomass) at each trophic level in a food web
an animal whose body temperature varies with the temperature of its surroundings
geographic range
all the places where a particular species can be found
aerial root in mangroves that increases the surface area exposed to the air at low tide for oxygen uptake
organisms moving out of the population
number of individuals of the same species which live in a defined geographic area
brown fat
a tissue specialised for heat production
individual behaviour
movement or phsiological regulation
change in direction of plant growth in response to gravity
all the parts of planet earth where organisms live as a single ecosystem
Hermaphrodites (animals)
producing both female and male gamtes
an inherited characteristic that increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction of an individual organism.
a protective sheath covering the embryonic shoot
the modification of a behavioural response to a particular stimulus on the basis of previous experience
the abrupt transition from one development stage to another

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