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Medicine & Drugs revision

Terms

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Broad spectrum
eg. tetracyclines. These antibiotics are effective against a broader range of bacterica. Doctors confronted with bacterial infected patients need to identify the organism by undergoing numerous tests such as blood, urine. Whilst testing is being done, they will prescribe a broad spectrum antibiotic until organism is determined, then they switch to a narrow spectrum antibiotic.
Antivirals
drugs used to fights viral infections work by A) altering cells genectic material and make it non virilant B) prevent new viruses from leaving cell.
General Anaesthetic
renders patient unconcious so they feel no pain. First was ethoxyethane, then chloroform.
indigestion
caused by overeating, alcohol, smoking, anxiety or eating some food. Drugs can occassionally irritate stomach lining.
Antacids (eg milk of magnesia)
works by neutralizing the acid, preventing inflamation, relieving pain and discomfort, allowing mucus & stomach lining to mend. At home antacids inc. sodium bicarbonate, mylanta
Narrow Spectrum Antibiotics
eg. prenicillin. These antibiotics are effective against only certain bacteria.
Depressants
depress central nervouse system, interfere with transmission of nerve impulses in nerve cells. Slow down body functions, including mental activity.
Stimulants
drugs that increase a persons state of mental alertness
AIDS
aquired immune deficiency syndrome. Caused by retrovirus which contains RNA not DNA. It invades certain cells, particularly white blood cells, and leaves body helpless to fight infection.
Alcohol
medically used as antiseptic, drinking lots regularly causes physical and psychological dependence.
Amphetamine
similiar to adrenaline hormone, mimics effect of stimulants upon sympathetic nerve system
asprin
prevent production of pain enzyme transmitting to the brain. Side effects include bleeding of stomach lining and l
lethal dose
new drugs developement is a long & expensive process. Studies undergo many steps, the drugs must be tested on animals to determine the lethal dose, the amount which kills 50% of the population. Known as LD50
Nicotine,
responsible for causing approx. 1/3 of the the world populations smoking addiction. Short term effects-increases concentration, relieves tension, increased heart rate, blood pressure, reduces urine output
AZT
successful in treating AIDS but no a cure.
tolerance
the capacity that the body can absorb of a drug continuously or in large doses without adverse effect. drug tolerance occurs as the body adapts to the drug
Cocaine
first anaesthetic in medicine, originating in south America. Works by suppressing nerve transmission and decrease blood supply to nerves.
Mild Analgesics
prevent production of pain enzyme transmitting to the brain.
Side Effects
any effect of a drug or medicine, usually unwanted that is in addition to its intended effect harmful or unpleasant eg. morphine
Viruses
replicate by penetrating the living host cell and injecting their DNA/RNA into cells cytoplasm, and then controls and takes of the cell. Causes cells to die or become seriously altered and cause symptoms of viral infection.
Antibacterials
chemicals which prevent growth and multiplication of bacteria.
Alexander Flemming
accidentally discovered mould (penicillium notatum, produced compound, penicilin which inhibited he growth of bacteria.
Analgesics
medicing of drugs used to eliminate pain
Marijuana
mild hallucinogen, made from hemp plant. Short term effects include: relaxation, confusion & emotional distress, poss. hallucinations. Long term effects: lethargy, apathy, lowering of fertility
Designer Drugs
are made by modifying structure of amphetamines, easy to manufacture, made in clandestine small scale labs. Readily available because no importation required, eg ecstast, crystal meth
synergistic effect
when alcohol is taken with another drug enhancing its effect, and can be fatal
caffeine
most widely used stimulant in the world, present in tea, coffee, chocolate. Is a diuretic and increases alertness concentration, restlessness. Is an ALkaloid, like nicotine.
Local anaesthetics
block pain in a specific area when injected under the skin or applied topically. Does not effect overall conciousness.
Strong Analgesics
available by prescription, relieve severe pain from injury, surgery, heart attack, chronic disease. Temporarily block pain signals within brain and spine. Such as morphine and codeine

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