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Microbiology test II 2


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how do antivirals work?
they prevent the virus from attatching to the host cell
a_ is an obligatory parasite, meaning what?

they require living host cells in order to multiply
viruses can/are?
1. contain either DNA or RNA
2. has a protein coat
3. multiply inside cells by using the cells machinery
4. can make the infected cell produce other viruses or incorporate their own DNA/RNA into the host cells DNA/RNA
viruses aren't/can't?
1. are not living things
2. can't carry on metabolism no ATP
what is a host range?
the spectrum of hosts the virus can infect
a virus that infects an animal cell infects a human cell

likely/not likely?
not likely

they usually like one specific type of host cell
an infected bacteria is called?
what 2 factors determine host range?
1. the virus's requirement for attatchment to the host cell

2. the needed factors within the the potential host cell for viral multiplication
what is the range of viral sizes?

nm: 1 billionth of a meter
what is phage therapy?
using bacteriaphages to treat bacterial infections

ex. using bacteriaphages to attack a tumor
a complete, developed infectious virulant particle with a nucleid acid surrounded by a protein coat is called?
a Viron
the protein coat that covers a a virus is called?
a caspid

the mass of a virus is mainly determined by the caspid
the protein subunits that compose each caspid

the arrangement of caspomeres is characterized by the type of virus.
can a virus have both types of nucleic acids?
no, only one type per virus
give 3 different types of viral shapes?
helical, polyhedral, complex
give an example of an enveloped virus
describe the shape of a helical virus and give an example of a virus with this shape

describe the shape of a complex virus and give an example of a virus with this shape
polyhedral head
helical sheath
base plate on bottom with tail fibers and pins sticking out
viruses are grouped into families based on what 3 factors?
1. dna or rna type (ds or ss)
2. how they divide
3. shape
The taxomy (naming) of viruses
1. order: ends in __?
2. family: ends in __?
3. genus: ends in __?
4. species share __ and __
1. -ales
2. virdae
3. virus
4. genetic info and host range
what is the end result for the host cell in a lytic cycle and a lysogenic cycle?
lytic- the host cell dies (lysis)

lysogenic- host cell stays alive
what are the 5 stages involved in viral multiplication?
1. attatchment: phage attatches to host cell

2. penetration: phage penetrate host cell and injects DNA

3. biosynthesis: phage directs synthesis of viral copents by the host cell

4. maturation: viral coponents are assembles into virons

5. release: host cell lyses and new virons are released
viruses that multiply in a lytic cycle are ___.
viruses that multiply in a lysogenic cylce are ___.
vruses that multiply in either a lytic or lysogenic cycle are?
when the DNA of the host cell and viral cells combine it is now called a ?
thru what method does a cell divide in the lysogenic cycle?
binary fission
3 important results of lysogeny:

1. host cell is now _ to reinfection of the same phage.

2. the host cell may exhibit new properties, this is called _ _ ?

3. only certain bacterial genes are transferred, this is called _
1. immune
2. phage conversion
3. specialized transduction
how is the penetration stage in the multipliction of animal viruses different?
the phage is taken into the cell by endocytosis or fusion
what step is added into the multiplication of animal viruses?
uncoating: the viron is taken inside the cell and the protein coat seperated
how is the release stage in the multiplication of animal viruses different?
the new virons are either released by:

1. budding (enveloped viruses)
part of the plasma mebrane is picked up as they leave


2. rupture
what is a genome?
the sum total of a DNA in an organism
what are the 6 steps in the multiplication of animal viruses?
1. attatchment
2. penetration
3. uncoating
4. biosynthesis
5. maturation
6. release
this viral family is responsible for respiratory infections
this viral family is responsible for smallpox/cowpox
this viral family is responsible for chicken pox, cold sores and mono
this viral family is responsible for hepB and liver tumors
this viral family is responsible for wart and inducing tumors
T or F: Viruses must convert DNA into RNA and they have specialized enzymes to do this

viruses ust convert RNA into DNA
This RNA viral family is responsible for polio and is the smallest virus

ssRNA: pico "small"
This RNA viral family is responsible for rabies

remember rhab: rabbit: rabies
give an example of an illness produced by the RNA family retroviridae
what is the name of the enzyme retroviridae carry to make dsDNA?
reverse transcriptase
what is the difference between a provirus and a prophage? what does this mean for a provirus?
unlike a prophage the provirus never comes out of the chromosome

as a provirus HIV is protected from the hosts immune system and antiviral drugs
cancer causing alterations to cellular DNA affect parts of th genome called?

think oncology: the study of cancer
about __% of cancers are known to be virus induced?
an infection aquired after a virus remains in asymptomatic host cell for long periods is called? examples?
latent infection

examples: cold sores, shingles
a disease process that occurs over a long period and is generally fatal. examples?
persistant viral infection

examples:measles virus
an infectious protein inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant and surgical instruments
prions (non living)
examples of diseases brought on by prions
mad cow, sheep scrapie
normal cellular prion protein
abnormal cellular prion protein
1. the study of disease
2. study of cause of disease
3. development of disease
4. colonization of the body by pathogens
5. an abnormal state in hich the body is not funtioning normaly
1. pathology
2. etiology
3. pathogenesis
4. infection
5. disease
microbiota that may be present for days, weeks or months
transient microbiota
microbiota that peranently colonize the host
normal microbiota
the relationship between the host and normal microbiota
Kochs postulates are used to prove what?
used to prove the cause of a infectious disease
a change in body function that is felt by th patient as a result of disease
microbes that don't normally cause disease in their normal habitat but may if introduced into a different environment
opportunistic pathogens

ex. e coli
if 1 organism benefits and the other is unaffecteced it's called?
if both organisms benefit its called?

think mutual
if one organism benefits at the expense of another its called?
give some examples of where normal microbiota would be found on the body
mouth, large intestines, skin, eyes
competition among microbes is called?
microbial antagonism
give 3 ways normal microbiota protect the host
1. occupy "real estate" so there no room for pathogens

2. produce acids

3. produce bacteriocins
diseases that spread from one host to another is called?

communicable diseases

chicken pox, measles genital herpes
diseases that easily spread from one host to another are called?

contagious diseases

ex chicken pox, measles
diseases that aren't transmitted from one host to another are called?
noncommunicable diseases
fraction of a population that contracts a disease durig a specific time
fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time
disease that occurs occaionaly in a population
sporadic disease
disease constantly present in a population
endemic disease
disease aquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
epidemic disease
worldwide epidmeic
pandemic disease
immunity in most of a population
herd immunity
symptoms develop rapidly
acute disease
disease develops slowly
chronic disease
symptoms are between acute and chronic
subacute disease
disease with a period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive
latent disease
when pathogens are limited to a small area of th body
local infection
an infecton throughout the body
systemic infection
systemic infection that began as a local infection
focal infection
bacteria in the blood
growth of bacteria in the blood
toxins in the blood
viruses in the blood
acute infection that causes the initial illness
primary infection
opportunistic infection after a primary infection
seondary infection
no noticeable signs or symptoms
subclinical disease
what are some factors (predisposing)that makes the body more susceptible to a disease?
1. age
2. lifestyle
3. fatigue
4. inherited traits (ex. sickle cell)
5. short urethra in females
6. climate and weather
7. chemotherapy
know the stages of disease!!

1st stage: no signs or symptoms (short)

2nd stage: mild signs or symptoms (short)

3rd stage: most severe signs or symptoms (long)

4th stage: signs and symptoms

5th stage
1. incubation period
2. prodromal period
3. period of illness
4. period of decline
5. period of convelescence
provides a pathogen with conditions for survival and multiplication and an opportunity for transmission
reservois of infection
give some examples of diseases passed by humans as a result of reservois of infection within the host
AIDS, gonnorrhea
give some examples of diseases passed by animals as a result of reservois of infections within the host
rabies, lyme disease
diseases that occur mainly in animals but can be transmitted to humans are called?
2 major non-living reservoirs of infetious diseases are:
soil and water
give examples of diseases found on non lving reservois of infection (fomites- inatimate objects)
botulism, tetaus
contact transmission that is known as "person to person"
direct transmission
contact transmission that is spread by fomites
indirect transmission
contact transmission via airborne droplets
droplet transmission
transmission of disease agents by a medium such as food, water, blood, bodily fluids or air
vehicle transmission
if droplets travel in dust more than 1 meter from reservoir to host is it called airborne transmission or droplet transmission?

ex measles, tb, streptococci
animals that carry pathogens from one host to another

what animals are the most important of this group?

when anthropods (vectors) transmit disease passively on their feet or other body parts it's called?
mechanical transmission
when anthropods (vectors) transmit disease actively after pathogens have reproduced INSIDE the vector

ex. biting, defacating, vomitting
biological transmission
infections acquired as a result of hospital stay
nosocomial infection
what percentage of hospital patients aquire nosocomial infections?
what group of bacteria make up the largest group of nosocomial infections?
gram + cocci : staph/strep
what is the most common nosocomial infection caught at the hospital?
urinary tract infections
diseases that are new, increasing in incidence or showing the pottential to increase in the future
emerging infectious diseases
according to the CDC this is the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection
hand washing
give some factors and exaples of factors that contribut to the emergence of new infectious diseases:
1. mutation: vibro cholerae

2. inapropriate use of antibiotics: antibiotic resistnt strains

3. changes in weather patterns: hantavirus-mouse dropping being blown around/tornado

4. modern transporation: west nile

5. natural disaster, war: coccidioidomycosis: cali/ earthquakes

6. animal control measures: overpolpulation of deer/lyme disease

7. failures in public health: public not vaccinated/diptheria
the study of where and when diseases occur
this person mapped the occurence of cholera in London

this collection and analysis of data regarding occurence of disease is called?
Snow 1848-1849

Descriptive eidemiology
this person showed that handwashing decreased the incidence of puerperal fever

this study of a disease using controlled experiments
Semmelweis 1846-1848

experimental epidemiology
this person showed that improved sanitation decreased the incidence of epedemic typhus

comparison of diseased group and a healthy group is called
Nightingale 1858

analytical epidemiology
health care workers report specifed disease to local, state and national offices
case reporting
physicians are required to report incidence
nationally notifiable disease
the CDC (centers for disease control and prevention
) is responsible for what 2 things?
1. collecting and analyzing epidemiological info in the US

2. publishing a morbidity and mortality weekly report o
incidence of a specific notifiable disease
deaths from notifiable diseases
# of people affected in a given time period
morbidity rate
# of deaths from a disease/total population in a given time
mortality rate
the ability to cause disease
the extent of pathogenicity; the more inclined it is to cause disease
what are the principal portals of entry and give examples of each
1. mucous membranes: "any opening"respiratory tract (#1)

2. skin: broken/cuts

3. parenteral route: injections/mosquito bites
3. nose
4. throat
the virulence of a microbe is expressed as what formula/#
represents the infectious dose for 50% of the population
of bacillus anthracis, which portal of entry is most lethal?
the poteny of a toxin is expressed by what formula/#

represents a lethal dose of a toxin for 50% of the population
this outside cover represents a way bacteria avoid the immune system ad increases the virulence in some species

example of a bacteria with this mechanism
glycocalyx: streptooccus mutans-dental carries(plaque)
a heat and acid resistant substance on the cell surface that allow it to stick and contribute to its virulence

example of bacteria with this mechanism
m protein: streptococcus pyogenes
name 3 different defenses the body uses to prevent pathogens from sticking
mucus: trap
cilia: move along/sweep
projection pathogens use for motility and helps it ashere to host cells

examples of bacteria with this mechanism
fimbrae: escherichia coli
outter protein like fimbrae used for attatchment/adherence to host cells

example of bacteria with this mechanism
opa protein:neisseria gonorrhoeae
this type of end may be present on bactria allowing them to stick, increasing its virulence

example of a bacteria with this type of mechanism
tapered end: treponema pallidum
the virulence of some bacteria is aided by the release of _
enzyme secreted to coagulate blood
enzyme secreted to digest fibrin clots
enzyme that hydrolyses hlyaluronic acid

breakdown of CT
enyme that hydrolyzes collagen

breakdown protein in CT
enzyme that destroys IgA antibodies
IgA proteases
enzyme that takes iron from host binding proteins
enzyme that change surface proteins
antigenic variation
substances that contribute to pathogenicity
the ability to produce a toxin
presence of toxins in a hosts blood
inactivated toxin used in a vaccin
antibodies against a specific toxin
where would you find endotoxins located on:
1. gram - bacteria
2. gram + bacteria
1. part of the outer cell wall
2. produced inside
gram - poison released when a cell is destroyed
gram - endotoxin is a protein or a fat? what is its name?
a fat, lipd A
can a endotoxin be neutralized by an antitoxin?
the LD50 for endotoxins is
large or small?
large, need alot for 50% of the population to get sick
a macrophage will release __ if it ingests lipid A, this will signal the brain to reset the body's thermostat resulting in fever
gram + poison released as a metabolic byproduct when the bacteria dies
an AB exotoxins is what type of toxin?
type III
exotoxins are composed of fat or protein?
does the release of exotoxins induce fever?
what is the LD50 of an exotoxin?
small amount needed to make 50% of the population get sick
in an AB toxin, the "A" component disrupts what?

the "B" component allows what?
protein synthesis

superantigen exotoxins are what type of toxin?
type I
this exotin stimulates the host cell to over produce cytokins and cause an intense immune response, including fever, nausea, diarrhea, shock and death
type I
this exotoxin type that disrupts host cell membranes (pokes holes in it)causing the cell to lyse
type II
give some portals of exit for bacteria
resp tract-coughing/sneezing
gasto tract-feces/saliva
gen tract-urine/vaginal
these cells defend against extracellular pathogens by binding to antigens (tagging them) making them easier for phagocytes to find and eat
B cells
2 most important leukocytes
neutrophils and monocytes:macrophages
a foreign substance whose surface molecules are different fro your own cells
"non-self markers"
microorganism capable of producing disease;

bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans and parasites
what is the difference between neutrophils and basophils?
neutrophils dies after phagocytosis
non specific defense mechanisms are called __; these are your first and second line of defense aka "barriers"
intact skin, mucous membranes and their secretions and normal microbiota represents your __ line of defense (1st,2nd,3rd)
natural killer cells, phagocytic WBC's (neutrophils and basophils), antimicrobial proteins fever and the inflammatory response represents your __ line of defense (1st,2nd,3rd)
specialized Lymphocytes (T and B cells),antibodies, memory cell production represents your __ line of defense (1st,2nd,3rd)
B cells ad T cells are part of your 2nd line of defense T or F?
False: Third
What are the 4 signs of inflammation? SRHP
swelling, redness, heat,pain
these cells produce histamines
these cells defened against intracellular pathogens and cancer by binding to and lysing infected cells including cancer
T cells
killer cells that work by punching holes in the plasm membrane of the pthogenic cell
cytotoxic cells
the __ becomes an antigen presenting cell that presents the antigen to the __ (general) who stimulates either a B or T cell

helper t cell
Tc cells are __ T cells
Th cells are __ T cells
Ts cells are __ T cells
these cells make antibodies for a specific antigen and will recognize it if reintroduced
Memory B and T cells
defends against extracellular pathogens (interstitial fluid typhatic system, bloodstream)
B cells
defends against intracellular pathogens and cancer
T cells
which cell is damaged/missing by HIV that makes it so deadly?
helper T cells
this type of adaptive immunity occurs when a perosn makes their own antibodies

(prior illness, vaccine)
type of adaptive immunity that occurs when antibodies are given to a person

(breastmilk, antibody serum)

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