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Nur B final


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Name some nutrient intakes that are lower in American diets?
↓ vitamins A and C, milk, fruits and vegetables (except fried potatoes)
_________identify conditions and specific health events
Epidemiological studies
__________test the effects of a treatment or intervention
Clinical trials
________is the best ingredient for decision-making about nutrition and your health
A _________ procedure eliminates bias
________can cause problems in research
People have expectations about a treatment
Those expectations can influence what happens, and the results of the research
Placebo effect
Most food preferences are what?
Food items develop strong what?
symbolic, emotional, and cultural meanings
Food choices are not driven by?
need for nutrients or food selection genes
What promotes food choice changes?
Knowledge, attitudes, and values help promote change
What is the key in making dietary changes?
is to determine which ones are easiest
What is alcohol?
-a food, an energy source
-a drug; it modifies body functions
How is alcohol produced?
-from carbohydrates in grains, fruits, and other foods by fermentation
What can moderate alcohol consumption protect you against?
-against heart disease
What is moderate alcohol consumption?
-one standard-sized drink per day for women
-two drinks for men
(raises level of HDL)
How many calories per gram does alcohol provide?
Heavy drinkers receive too little of what in their diet?
thiamin, vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron
Truth about alcohol & absorption:
Alcohol easily and rapidly absorbed in stomach and small intestine
Due to _____ between intake and utilization, blood levels of alcohol ______.
lag time___build up
Mild intoxication causes what in people
They lose control over muscle movement
Truth about alcohol in men vs. women:
Alcohol in women produces higher blood levels of alcohol than for men of the same body weight
Underage drinking counts for how much of consumed alcohol in U.S.?
List some things alcohol does to body?
-speeds aging
-substituted instead of food
-toxic to all cells
-vitamin/mineral deficiencies (zinc, B-vitamins)
-decreased absorption & utilization of vitamins
What is a heavy drinking episode? (binge)
-drinking 5 or more drinks in a row for men
-drinking 4 or more drinks in a row for women
_____ is a study that identifies a link between a health condition and behavior
observational study
______ is pooling of quantitative data from many studies to see what overall conclusions can be drawn
________ is when subjects don’t know if they are in the experimental or placebo group until after the study’s over; in a double blind study, the researchers don’t know either
Blind (single or double) study
________ is a study that poses a research question and then follows subjects over time
Prospective study
________ is a group of subjects randomized into an experimental group and a control group.
Randomized control trial
________ is a study that uses recorded data or recall from the past
Retrospective study
_____ is the probability that something will occur
_______is the accuracy or truthfulness of the study’s conclusions
What is a dietary supplement?
-intended to supplement the diet not substitute for healthy foods
-has 1 or more dietary ingredients
Amino acids
-intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, liquid, or powder
-is labeled on the front panel as supplement
What is a new dietary supplement?
A dietary ingredient that was not sold in the US in a dietary supplement before October 15, 1994
How are dietary supplements regulated?
like a food instead of a drug
Health-related claims may be made about the effect of the supplement on the ____ of the body or _______
“structure or function” ... “general well-being”
What can be on dietary supplement label?
-FDA approved statements
-Claims about reducing the risk of nutrition deficiency diseases
-label about not being evaluated by FDA (if claims made)
For dietary supplements, the FDA does not require what?
Testing for: safety/effectiveness/interaction
-Approval before make & sell
Manufacturer should ensure what about dietary supplements?
-safety of ingredients
-label information is accurate
-said contents match container contents
What stimulant/herb was banned in 2003?
_____ is how quickly breaks down into smaller pieces
______ is how quickly dissolves in solution similar to digestive juices
_____ is the acceptable limit of impurities
____ is amount of active ingredient
___ is how long retains quality
Pregnant and lactating women should be taking what vitamin-mineral supplement?
some nutrients, of note iron & folate
Women with heavy menstrual bleeding should be taking what vitamin-mineral supplement?
iron (vitamin C)
Women of childbearing age/premenopausal women should be taking what vitamin-mineral supplement?
folate, iron, calcium
Smokers should be taking what vitamin-mineral supplement?
B vitamins, vitamin C
Alcohol abusers should be taking what vitamin-mineral supplement?
multivitamin-mineral supplement (Vitamin B1, folate, B6, C)
People on diets should be taking what vitamin-mineral supplement?
multivitamin-mineral supplement
Vegetarians should be taking what vitamin-mineral supplement?
calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin B2 and B12, vitamin D
Older adults (> 70 years of age)should be taking what vitamin-mineral supplement?
calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B6 and B12, zinc
High does of vitamin-mineral supplements can result in
nutrient to nutrient imbalances/interactions
Taking high levels for a prolonged time can be toxic
like taking what?
fat-soluble vitamins (A and D)
No current law prohibits supplement potency, except for?
High doses of some nutrients may do what?
Reduce absorption and utilization of other nutrients
_____ are crude drugs of vegetable origin utilized for the treatment of disease states or to attain or maintain a condition of improved health
Herbs in a medical field are considered?
-diluted drugs
-with toxins & active “useful” components
-have active ingredients
-provide incomplete knowledge of risks & benefits
Herbs’ risk to health depends on what?
-amount and duration of use
-age and health status of user
What are some herbs that the FDA warns against?
Ephedra/Aristolochic acid/Chaparral/
Willow bark/
Diet relates to what 3 things?
-development of vitamin & mineral deficieny diseases
-compromised growth & impaired mental develop in kids
-body's ability to fight off infectious disease
*_____are modified to enhance contribution to health
Functional foods
Synonomous name for functional foods?
What are functional foods for?
-improve health
-to prevent disease (with high amounts of compounds)
Functional foods don't have what?
-No statutory definition of “functional foods”
-No specific regulations that apply
How are foods made functional?
-taking out harmful components
-increasing nutrients
-using beneficial foods when making food
______live, beneficial bacteria found in fermented foods
_____ is a non-digestible carbohydrates broken down by colon bacteria
Cancer has many causes primarily linked to what?
environment and heredity (diet)
What kind of diet can reduce cancer risks?
based on plant foods that include lean meats, fish, and low-fat dairy products, regular physical activity, and normal levels of body fat
What happens in the progression phase of cancer?
-Body loses control over abnormal cells, numbers increase rapidly
-cells become so numerous they erode normal functions of the body in the sites of growth
-Abnormal cells migrate to other tissues and cause DNA damage and abnormal cell development
Diet accounts for how much of cancer risks?
Environmental factors account for how much & name some?
-exposure to asbestos
-chemical pollutants
Cancer continues to decline as intake of what increases?
fruits and vegetables (5-9 servings)
What are some antioxidants in vegetables and fruits?
Vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium
Phytochemical in fruits & vegetables might prevent cancer by doing what?
-by protecting cells from damage due to oxidation
-by inhibiting the multiplication of abnormal cells
3 serving of what cruciferous vegetable per week reduce the risk of what cancers?
broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts...lung, bladder, and prostate cancer
_____ have vitamins, minerals, fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, and phytochemicals that work in cancer prevention
whole grains
Consumption of what is linked to cancer?
excessive alcoholic beverages
50% drop in deaths from heart disease related to what?
-declines in cholesterol levels
-reduced rates of smoking
-improved blood pressure control
-advances in medical care
Why does risk of heart disease in women increase after menopause?
Menopause brings declines of estrogen and HDL and increases in LDL
Women or men: who has higher HDL and total blood cholesterol?
What is the most common form of cardiovascular disease?
Atherosclerosis or Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
What is CHD?
-slow, complex disease that begins in childhood and progresses with age
-begins with an injury to the endothelium (inner most layer of the artery)
-accumulation of plaques along the inner walls of the coronary arteries
-Plaques may grow large enough to significantly reduce the blood flow through an artery
What are some risk factors for CHD?
Increasing age, male, heredity,smoking, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, inactivity
Diabetes Mellitus
What is cholesterol?
a fat-like, waxy substance that is present in all animal cell membranes
What number defines clinically high blood pressure?
over 240 mg
Primary carrier for cholesterol in the blood?
HDL carriers what % of cholesterol in the blood?
25%-35% (HDL over 60 a negative risk factor)
To prevent Heart Disease, you should reduce saturated fat to what?
to less than 7% total calories
High blood pressure exceeds what?
Moderate sodium restriction to prevent Heart Disease is how much?
2400 milli a day
Truth about diabetes & risk for heart disease:
even controlling blood glucose still not enough if you have diabetes
Obesity (as relates to Heart Disease) increases risk for?
-high blood pressure
-high cholesterol or LDL levels
What doubles the risk for Heart Disease?
a sedentary lifestyle
Elevated triglycerides levels are associated with what?
-low HDL cholesterol levels
-diabetes, elevated blood glucose levels
_____is an amino acid in the blood
Dietary components with greatest effect as it relates to plasa homocysteine?
Folic acid
Vitamins B6 and B12
Food choices to help prevent Heart Disease?
-fruit and vegetable
-dietary fiber
-fish consumption
-soy protein
-alcohol-wine (manage stress)
What is obesity?
having a very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass, or Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or higher
Body weight is the result of what factors?
genes, metabolism, behavior, environment, culture, and socioeconomic status
Contributing factors to obesity as it relates to caloric utilization?
-Resting Metabolic Rate
-Physical Activity
-Thermic Effect of Food
What is BMI for being overweight?
Short-term goal:
-5 to 10 percent loss
-1 to 2 lb per week
Interim goal:
Long-term goal:
Additional weight loss, if desired, and long-term weight maintenance
Ways to lose weight?-therapies
Dietary therapy, Physical activity,Behavior therapy, “Combined” therapy, Pharmacotherapy,Weight loss surgery
For GB must have BMI of with comobities?
35 or 40 at least

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