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Bio1406 Test 1 Vocab


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A substance that in creasces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
acid percipitation
rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.2
the attraction be tween different kinds of molecules
alpha helix
a spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific patern of hydrogen bonding
amino acid
an organic molecule processing both carboxyl and amino groups. amino acids acta as the monomers in polypeptides
a negatively charged ion
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent
the smallest unit of mater that retains the properties of an element
atomic mass
the total mass of an atom, which is the mass in grams of 1 mole of the atom
atomic nucleous
an atom's dense central core, containinfg protons and neutrons
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleous of the atom, unique for each element and designated be a subscrit to the left of the elemental symbol
a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
beta pleated sheet
one form of the secondary structure of protiens in which the ploypeptide chain folds back and forth. two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds
the scientific study of life
the entire population of earth ihabited by life;the sum of all the planets ecosystems
calorie (cal)
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree C;also theamount of heat energy 1 g of watr realses when it cools by 1 degree C
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides)
a positively charged ion
a structural ploysaccharide of plant cell walls cosisting of glucose monomers joinde by beta glycosidic linkages
celsius scale
a temerature scale equal to farinhite - 32 measurinf the freezing point of water at 0 degrees C and the boiling point at 100 degrees C
chemical bond
an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outter-shell elctrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom. the bonded atoms gain complete outter electron shells
chemical equalibrium
in a chemical reaction the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate if the reverse reaction so that the relative concentration of the reactants and produts does not change with time
a structural ploysaccharide consisting of amino sugar monomers found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthrapods
a steroid that forms and essentila componenet of animal cell membranes and acts a precousor molecule fo the synthesis of other biologically impotant steriods such as hormones
the binding together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds
a mixture made up of liquid and particles that reamin suspended rather than dissolve
all the organisims that inhabit a particular area, an asseblage of populations of different species livin colse enough together for potential interaction
a substance consisting of two or more elementscombined in a fixed ratio
condensation reaction
a reaction in wich to molecules become colvalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule usually water in which case it is also called a dehydration reaction
controlled experiment
an experiment in which and experimental group is compared with a controlled group that varies only in the factor being tested
covalent bond
a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
a measure of mass for atoms and suatomic particles the same as the atomic mass unti or amu
recorded observations
dehydration reaction
a chemical reaction in which to molecules colvalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule
deductive reasoning
a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
in proteins a process in which proteins unravel and loss their native shape, therby becoming biologically inactive , in dna, the separation between the two double helix, occours under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature
a double-stranded helical neucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with a dioxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine cytosine thymine and guanine. capeable of replicatinf and determining the inherited structure of a cells protiens
a double sugar conssiting of two monosaccharides joind by a glycosidic linkage formed during dehydration synthesis
discovery science
the process of scientific inquiry that ocuses on describing nature
a taxonomic catogory above the kingdom level. the three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
double helix
the form of native DNA
disulfide bridge
a strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cystine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with wich they interact; one or more communities and the environment around them
a subatomic particle witha negative electrical charge
electron shell
an energy level f electrons at a characteristic average distance from the nucleous of the atom
the attractions of a given atomfor the electrons of a covalent bond
emergent properties
new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierachy of life owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
the capacity to cause change especially to do work
a macromolecule serving as a catayst
any substance that cannot e broken down by chemical reactions
one of two compunds that are mirror images of eachother
eukaryotic cell
atype of cell with memebrane enclosed neucleous and organelles
evaprotive cooling
the property of a liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation
a lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of DNA
the genetic material of an organism or a virus
geometric isomer
one of several compounds that have the same molecular formula and covalent arrangementsbut differ in spacial arrangments of their atoms owing to the inflexibility if double bonds
an extensivly branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver or muscle of animal, the animal equivilant to starch
glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond fromed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
a tenative answer to a well-framed question, narrower in scope than a theory and subject to testing
having an affinity for water
having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water
hydrogen ion
a single portion with a charge 1+. The dissociation of a water molecule (H2O) leads to the generation of a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion
hydroxide ion
a water molecule that has lost a proton; OH-
hydronium ion
a water molecule that has an extra proton bound bound to it; H3O+
hydrogen bond
a type of weah chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
the total amount of kinetic energy due to the random motion of atoms or molecules in a body of matter; also called thermal energy. Heat is energy in its most random form
the search for information, often focuesd by specific questions
inductive reasoning
a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations
one of several atomic forms of an element, each wih the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, thus differing the atomic mass
ionic bond
a cemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic compound
a compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called a salt
one of several compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three tyoes of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers, and enantiomers
an organic molecule consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
a chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water, functioning in disassembly of polymers to monomers
hydration shell
the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
joule (J)
a unit of energy 1 J = 0.239 cal; 1 cal = 4.184 J
kilocalorie (kcal)
a thousand calories; the amount of heat energy required to raise the tempature of 1 kg of water by 1 C
kinetic energy
the energy associated with the relative motion of objects. Moving matter can preform work by imparting motion to other matter
one of a group of compounds, includin fats, phospholipids, and steroid, that mix poorly if at all with water
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
molecular formula
a type of molecular notation representating the quantity of constituent atoms, but not the nature of the bonds that join them
mass number
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
a representation of a theory or process
molecular mass
the sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule; sometimes calle dmolecular weight
mole (mol)
the number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains Avogadro's number of molecules
a commom measure of solute concetration, referring to the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution
a substace that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution
a localized groupof individuals of the same species that can interbreed, producing fertile offspring
individual living things
a specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues
organ system
a group of organs that work together in preforming vital body functions
anu of several membrne-enclosed structures with specalized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells
negative feedback
a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial flucation
a subatomic particle having no electrical charge (electrically neutral), with a mass of about 1.7 x 10 -24 g, found in the nucleus of an atom
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
double bond
a double covalent bond; the sharing of two pairs of valence electrons by two atoms
a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other proteins
the opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix
functional group
a specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reacation. polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromoleules
nonpolar covalet bond
a type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
the simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. aksi known as simple sugars, monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are generally some multiple of CH2O
the three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% o the time
a subatomic particle with a positive electrical charge, with a mass of about 1.7 x 10 -24 g, found in the nucleus of an atom
positive feedback
a physiological control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change
prokaryotic cell
a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organells. organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes
potential energy
the energy that matter posses as a result of its location or spatial arrangment (structure)
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond between atoms that differ in electornegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive
polar molecule
a molecule (such as water) withi opposite charges on different ends of the molecule
a material resulting from a chemical reaction
a long molecule consisting of amny similar or identical monomers linked together
a measure of hydrogen ion concetration equal to -log[H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14
a polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reaction
a polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
a functional biological molecule consisting of one ore more polypeptides, folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure
peptide bond
the covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on the next, formed by dehydration reaction
primary structure
the level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids
a lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as a polar, hydrophylic head. phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membranes
one of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring fused to a five-member ring. adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines
one of two types of nitrogenous bases found in mucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring. cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrmidines
quaternary structure
the particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide
radioactive isotope
an isotope (an atomic from of a chemical element) that is unstable;the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy
secondary structure
the localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages
saturated fat
a saturated fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton
a storage polysaccharide in plants, consisting entirely of glucose monomers joined by alpha glycosidic linkages
a substance that is dissolved in a solution
a liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
the dissolving agent of a solution. water is the most versatile solvent known
structural isomer
one of several compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of a substance to change it tempature by 1 C
a compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called and ionic compound
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to streach or break the surface of a liquid. water has a high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules
a starting material in a chemical reaction
heat of vaporization
the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be from the liquid to the gaseous state
a measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules
van der Waals interactions
weak attractions between molecules or part of molecules that result from localized charge fluctuations
three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat ot triglyceride
trans fat
an unsaturated fat containing one or more trans double bonds
unsaturated fat
a fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton
tertiary structure
irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some virises
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various chemical groups attached
an intergrated group of cells with a common function, structure or both
systems biology
an approach of studing biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
structural formula
a type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representating covalent bonds
single bond
a single covalent bond; the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms
the application of scientific knowledge for a specific purpose, often involving industy or commerce but also including uses in basic research
a scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life
an explination that is broad in scope, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence
trace element
an element indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts
the bonding capacity of a given atom; usually equals the number of unpaired electrons required to complete the atom's outermost (valence) shell
valence electron
an electron in the outermost electron shell
valence shell
the outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chelical reactions of that atom

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