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oral pathology , Blood Dyscrasias


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What is purpura?
A general term for submucosal, subcutaneous bleeding.
What is petechiae?
A small, pinpoint, non-elevated red spot of submucosal bleeding.
What is ecchymosis?
A purple or purplish-red, non-elevated area of submucosal bleeding larger than a petechiae.
What is a hematoma?
A purple or purplish-red, elevated area of submucosal bleeding.
What is an epistaxis?
A spontaneous nose bleed
What is a hematuria?
Blood in the urine.
What is a hemoptysis?
Coughing up of blood
What is a hemolysis?
A rupture of erthrocytes with loss of hemoglobin
What is erythropenia?
A decrease in circulating in red blood cell (RBC's)
What is a leukopenia?
A decrease in circulating white blood cells (WBC's)
What is a thrombocytopenia?
A decrease in circulating platelets
thrombocytopenia? (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura)
a disease of the platelets resulting in a decrease in numbers
idiopathic. oral manifestations include spontaneous gingival bleeding, ecchymoses, petechiae, or purpura; invasive procedures are contraindicated while platelet count is depressed
The cause of secondary thrombocytopenic purpura?
Due to drugs, chemicals or radiation
What is the cause of immune thrombocytopenic purpura?
Etiology is autoimmune.
The treatment for primary thrombocytopenia is?
Pt may undergo spontaneous remission or transfusion, steroids and spleenectomy.
The treatment of secondary thrombocytopenia?
To eliminate the etiology if possible, and like the primary the patient may undergo spontaneous remission, transfusion, steriods spleenectomy
The disorder looks the same as thrombocytopenia but the etiology is different
Nonthrombocytopenia purpura- spontaneous bleeding
Nonthrombocytopenia purpura is caused by?
capillary fragility or a defect in the platelet function (ex. aspirin ingestion, nonsterioid anti-inflammatories, and autoimmune disease)
treatment is the same as for thrombocytopenia
A genetic form of nonthrombocytopenia purpura?
Von Willebrand's disease
A genetic disease resulting in a deficiency of a clotting factor?
Name the three types of hemophilia?
Hemophilia A, B, and C
Hemophilia A?
Factor 8 deficiency (x-linked transmission; you can either have a deficiency or be missing this. Happens in males passed on from the mothers.)
Ths disorder requires weekly injections of factor 8.
Hemophilia A
Hemophilia B?
Factor 9 deficiency (x-linked transmission)
Often called the Christmas Disease?
Hemophillia B
Hemophilia C?
Factor 11 deficiency (autoimmune transmission) not sex-linked transmission
what are the oral manifestations of hemophilia?
spontaneous gingival bleeding, purpura, petechiae, ecchymoses, and epitaxis; invasive procedure such as prophylaxis is contraindicated until missing factor is replaced. Treatment; replace the missing factor

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