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FA vitamins


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night blindness, dry skin
Vit A deficiency
arthralgias, fatigue, headaches, sore throat, alopecia, skin changes, hyperCa
Vit A excess
Vit B1 is a cofactor for which enzymes?
pyruvate DH a-ketoglutarate DH transketolase branched-chain AA DH
Vit B1 deficiency
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Dry beriberi - polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting Wet beriberi - high-output cardiac failure, edema
Vit B2 deficiency
Cheilosis/angular stomatitis Corneal vascularization Smooth purple tongue
Made from tryptophan in a process that requires pyridoxine (PLP)
Vit B3 niacin
dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis
Vit B3 deficiency
causes of Vit B3 deficiency
Hartnup disease - dec tryptophan absorption malignant carcinoid syndrome - increased tryptophan metabolism INH - decreased Vit B6
essential component of CoA and fatty acid synthase
Vit B5
dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency
Vit B5 deficiency
rxns involving B6
transamination decarboxylation glycogen phosphorylase heme synthesis cystathione synthase
B6 deficiency
convulsions, hyperirritability, peripheral neuropathy inducible by INH and OCs
cofactor for homocysteine methyltransferase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
Vit B12
Vit B12 deficiency
megaloblastic anemia neuro sx (paresthesias, subacute combined degeneration) usually caused by malabs (sprue, enteritis, Diphyllobothrium latum), lack of IF (pernicious anemia, gastric bypass surgery), or absence of terminal ileum (Crohn's) found in animal problems and made only by microorgs.
converted to THF, a coenzyme for 1-carbon transfer/methylationreactions; important for synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA
folic acid
most common vitamin deficiency in the US
folic acid seen in alcoholism and pregnancy can be caused by phenytoin, sulfonamides, MTX
caused by antibiotic use or excessive ingestion of raw eggs
biotin deficiency
Biotin is a cofactor for...
pyruvate carboxylase (pyruvate to OAA) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA) propionyl-CoA carboxylase (propionyl CoA to methylmalonyl CoA)
Vit C actions
-keep Fe in reduced state - more easily absorbable -cofactor in collagen synthesis -necessary for dopamine-b-hydroxylase, which converts dopamine to NE
swollen gums, bruising, anemia, poor wound healing
only vitamins missing from breast milk
Vit D and K
made by intestinal flora
Vit K
hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, loss of appetite, stupor
Vit D excess also seen in sarcoidosis - inc activation of vit D by epithelioid macrophages
protects erythrocytes and membranes from free radical damage
Vit E "E for erythrocytes"
deficiency results in neurodysfct (myelopathy), hemolytic anemia, muscle weakness
Vit E
gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues
Vit K
ethanol hypoglycemia
pyruvate reduced to lactate OAA reduced to malate inhibit gluconeogenesis and stimulate fatty acid synthesis
delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, dec adult hair; may predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis
zinc deficiency

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