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urinary system final


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where does the Filtration and monitoring of blood plasma take place and what does it form?
happens in kidneys; forms urine
how is the composition of urine and blood plasma different?
plasma has protein, urine contains wastes and ions
what are the next two places urine goes upon leaving the kidneys
ureters (muscular tubes) and urinary bladder (for temporary storage)
is the neural reflex of urination autonomic or somatic?
what is the branch of medicine that deals with the male and female urinary system, and the male reproductive system?
what is the branch of medicine that deals with the structure, function, and diseases of the kidneys?
what are the functions of the urinary system?
responsible for water/electrolyte balance, excretion of toxic compounds, reabsorption of important nutrients, stimulation of rbc, conversion of vitamin d to active form, production of urine
where\'s the kidneys located?
Retroperitoneal in the RUQ and LUQ of the abdomen
the right kidney is lower thatn the left and may be palpable, why?
liver is on the right
what are the anatomic relations of the right kidney?
liver, hepatic flexure of colon, duodenum
what are teh anatomic relations of the left kidney?
spleen, stomach, tail of pancreas, jejunum, splenic flexure of colon.
what is the concave notch on medial border; ureter, blood vessels & lymph enter/exit kidney here?
renal hilum
what is the fat filled region inside hilum?
renal sinus
what is the fibrous tissue that encases kidney?
renal capsule
what does the connective tissue surrounding the kidneys do?
provide protection, anchors kidneys in place
what are the three layers of the kidneys?
perirenal fat (deepest), renal fascia, pararenal fat (superficial)
what is the outer section of the internal kidney?
renal cortex
what is the part of the cortex between pyramids
renal columns
what is the inner area of the the cortex?
renal medulla
what part of the renal pyramid is toward the cortex?
what part of the renal pyramids points to center of the kidney?
what is The basic histological functional unit of the kidney?
how does the nephron produce urine?
filters blood that flows through kidneys
what are the three steps of the production of urine?
filtration, reabsorbtion, secretion
where does filtration occur?
what happens in filtration?
blood pressure foreces substance out of blood into kidneys
what happens in reabsorbtion?
the filtrate flows through a series of tubules and 99% is returned to the blood
what happens in secretion?
as the filtrate passes through the tubules, additional substances pass into it from the blood.
urine is collected in a series of progressively larger ducts that ultimately leads where?
to the ureters.
where do Arterial supply via Renal aa. from?
abdominal aorta
where does Venous drainage via Renal vv. into?
where do Postganglionic Sympathetic neurons originating in the superior mesenteric ganglion travel?
in the renal plexus located around the renal a.
what center regulates renal blood flow and pressure?
vasomotor center
what is the urinary bladder?
A highly stretchable, hollow muscular organ that provides temporary storage of urine
where is the bladder located?
men-anterior to rectum. women-anterior to the vagina and anteroinferior to the uterus
what is the detrusor muscle?
the 3 layers of smooth muscle that makes of the bladder wall
what are folds of mucous membrane observed when the bladder is empty?
what is a trigone?
a triangular region of the posterior wall
where does the bladder get its blood supply?
primarily via the superior vesical arteries, branches of the internal iliac aa
what is the urethra and what does it do?
A muscular tube, lined by mucous membrane, that runs from the internal urethral orifice of the bladder to the external urethral orifice Transports urine from the bladder to outside the body In males the urethra also conveys semen
where is the femal urethra located?
directly posterior to the pubic symphysis
what part of the urethra passes through the prostate?
what part of the urethra passes through the urogenital diaphragm?
what part of the urethra passes through the corpora spongiosum of the penis?
what is an external urethral sphincter?
A voluntary sphincter made of skeletal muscle
what is a urogenital diaphragm?
A sheet of skeletal muscle inferior (superficial) to the pelvic diaphragm in the anterior portion of the perineum – reinforces pelvic diaphragm
what\'s the pelvic diaphragm?
Sling-like muscular diaphragm that attaches to the bony pelvis and forms the floor of the pelvic basin – its is deep to the UG diaphragm Functions to support the pelvic viscera and help maintain fecal and urinary continence
what is urinary incontinence?
Inability to control micturition
what carries urine to the urinary bladder?
Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by the
The large passageway into which the major calyces empty is the
renal pelvis
The muscle responsible for compressing the urinary bladder and expelling its contents is (the)

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