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anatomy exam 4 part 2


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What structures make up the respiratory system?
Upper Nose & Nasal Cavity Paranasal Sinuses Pharynx Lower Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs
where does gas exchange occur?
alveoli of lungs
what are external nares?
outer openings where air usually enters
what is the portion of the nasal cavity enclosed by the flexible tissues of the nose called?
the vestibule
what is the main part of the laryngopharynx?
what are false folds?
Vestibular folds NOT involved in voice production Protect delicate vocal folds (keep foreign objects out)
what\'s the space between true folds
what muscles move the parts of the larynx relative to one another; regulate the length and tension of the vocal cords, and open and close the glottis regulating airflow?
what muscles move the larynx as a whole unit e.g., to elevate the larynx during swallowing & close epiglottis
what part of the bronchila tree has not cartilidge in the walls?
what part of the bronchial tree gives air to a single pulmonary lobule?
terminal bronchioles
what part of the bronchial tree delivers air to the exchange surface of the lung?
respiratory bronchioles
what are lungs composed of?
alveolar sacs & capillary beds
what adheres to the lungs surface?
Visceral pleura
what is the Space b/t parietal & visceral pleurae
pleural cavity
how many pulmonary arteries and veins are there for each lung?
2 veins, one artery
stimulation of whatconstricts bronchioles and increases mucous secretion?
Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons from Vagus n.
stimulation of what dilates bronchioles and reduces mucous secretion?
Postganglionic sympathetic neurons from thoracic & cervical sympathetic trunk
why is the visceral pluera insensitive to pain?
it receives no somatic sensory neurons
why is the parietal pluera senstive to pain?
it is innervated by SANs carried by the intercostal and phrenic nerves
what Requires muscle contraction to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity and produce a pressure gradient?
what Relies on diaphragm & a small contribution from External intercostals?
quiet inspiration
what Relies on External Intercostal mm. & others?
forced inspiration
diaphragm provides necessary change in thoracic volume in waht?
diaphragmatic breathing
the thoracic volume changes because the rib cage changes shape in what?
costal breathing
what musclesare used in normal inspiration?
diaphragm and external intercostals
what muscles are used in forced inspiraton?
diaphragm, external intercostals, SCM, perctoralis minor, serratus anterior, scalenes
what muscles are used in normal expiration?
what muscles are used in forced expiration?
abdominal and internal intercostals

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