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anatomy exam 4


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what is the groove located between the atria and the ventricles called?
antrioventicular groove (aka coronary sulcus)
what does elastic rebound/recoil do?
propels blood forward.
what is teh pericardial cavity?
the space between the parietal and visceral layers of serous pericardium; contains a think film of pericardial fluid.
where does the right pump send blood through?
pulmonary circuit (lungs)
where does the left pump sends blood through?
systemic circuit (body)
what is the outermost layer of the heart?
fibrous pericardium
what does the cardiovascular system mainly transport?
gases, nutrients, and metabolic waste products.
what is an apical beat?
maximal pulsation of the heart that can sometimes be felt and seen in the fifth intercostal space on the left side of the body.
what is the heart wall layer that overlies the cardiac vessels.
the epicardium
what is the middle layer of the heart wall? what is it composed of? where is it thickest and thinnest?
Myocardium. composed of cardiac muscle. thickest in ventricles and thinnest in atria.
what is the inner layer of the heart wall? what does it line?
endocardium. lines the chambers of the heart and is continuous with the lining of the blood vessels that enter/exit the heart.
what is the groove between the right and left ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart called? (contains the anterior interventricular artery and the great cardiac vein)
the anterior interventriclar groove (sulcus)
what is the groove between the R and L ventricles on the inferior surface of the heart containing the posterior interventricular artery and the middle caridac vein?
posterior interventricular groove (sulcus)
what are auricles?
expanpable pouches on the right and left atria.
what is the function of valves?
they prevent backflow of blood (regurgitation)
what do AV valves do?
prevent retrograde blood flow from ventricles to atria when ventricles contract.
what happens in mitral valve prolapse (clinical correlate)
the valve flips up or doesn't close correctly.
what happens in mitral valve stenosis?
the valves narrow and doesnt' completely open or close.
what do semilunar valves do?
Prevent blood from re-entering ventricles from great vessels during ventricular diastole
what structure stops the direst transmission of an electrical signal between the atrial and ventricular musculature.
the fibrous skeleton
What determines the heart rate?
sinoatrial (SA) node
What delays the signal?
the atrioventricular (AV) node
what is the route by which an electrical impulse can travel fro the atria to the ventricles?
the AV bundle
what are the terminal branches of the conducting systems called?
purkinje fibers
during the cardiac cycle, what contracts first? second?
both atria contract and then both ventricles contract.
what kind of neurons does the cardiac plexus contain?
both ANS sympathetic and parasympathetic.
what is the hollow central canal of a blood vessel called?
the lumen
what are the largest arteries in the body capable of withstanding large pressure changes?
elastic arteries
what arteries have a high percentage of smooth muscle?
muscular arteries
what are small vessels that control the amount of blood flowing into the capillary bed called?
What is the Consequence of low resistance for blood returning to the heart?
decline in BP in veins
what are the smallest blood vessels?
why do capillaries lack tunica externa or media?
To permit exchange between blood and surrounding interstitial fluids by diffusion through wall or gas in the wall (two way exchange)
if blood returns from the body to the right atrium, where must it first travel to before being pumped back out to the body?
the lungs
where does the pulmonary trunk exit the heart?
the right ventricle on its anterior surface.
four pulmonary veins return blood from the lungs to where?
the left atrium of the heart.
blood flow into the cornoary arteries is greatest when?
during ventricular diastole
where do cardiac veins return blood to?
the right atrium

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