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Anatomy 2 - Triangles of the Neck


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what landmarks delineate the SUPERIOR boundary of the neck
Mastoid process
External occipital protuberance
Superior nuchal line
what landmarks delineate the INFERIOR boundary of the neck
Manubrium - jugular notch
Acromion process of scapula
Which bones and cartilages make up the ANTERIOR aspect of the neck (at its midline), from SUPERIOR to INFERIOR
(superior to inferior)

Hyoid bone
Thyroid cartilage with thyroid notch (Adam's apple) - thyroid lamina
Cricoid cartilage
Tracheal cartilages
what 2 structures is the Thyroid Gland located in between
Cricoid cartilage and Trachea
how many origins does the sternocleidomastoid have
2 heads
what are the origins of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle
manubrium of the sternum
the medial 1/3 of the clavicle
what are the insertion points of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
mastoid process of the temporal bone
superior nuchal line
which muscle divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles
what are the posterior triangle's boundaries (or what things outline the posterior triangle)
middle third of the clavicle
what triangles does the posterior triangle further subdivide into
occipital triangle
supraclavicular (subclavian) triangle
what muscle creates the 2 subdivisions of the posterior triangls
inferior head of the omohyoid muscle
(creates the occipital and subclavian triangles)
what is the deepest portion of the posterior triangle called
the floor is the deepest portion
which prevertebral muscles and prevertebral fascia make up the floor of the posterior triangle
Splenius capitis
Levator scapulae
Scalene muscles (anterior, middle and posterior scalene muslces)
what do you call the most superficial portion of the posterior triangle
the roof is the most superficial portion
what makes up the roof of the posterior triangle
investing fascia
what is investing fascia
superficial layer of deep cervical fascia
list the structures that are found in the posterior triangle
Accessory nerve XI (11)
Brachial plexus
Cervical plexus
Subclavian artery and branches
Subclavian vein and tributaries
what is the only real structure that passes through the posterior triangle and what does it pass through
Accessory Nerve XI

passes through investing and prevertebral fascias
what forms the Brachial plexus
ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1
what kind of branches are cervical plexus made of
cutaneous branches
what are the boundaries (outlines) of the anterior triangle
what are the anterior trangles subdivided into
Submandibular (digastric) triangle
Submental triangle
Muscular triangle
Carotid triangle
which triangles of the anterior triangle are bilateral
submandibular triangle
muscular triangle
carotid triangle
(all except for submental triangle)
what are the boundaries of the submandibular (digastric) triangel
anterior and posterior bellies of digastric muscle
what is the floor of the digastric triangle
the mylohyoid muscle
what are the contents of the submandibular (digastric) triangle
Submandibular gland
Submandibular lymph nodes
Submandibular ganglion and Lingual nerve
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Mylohyoid nerve
Facial artery and vein
what are the submental triangle boundaries
anterior bellies of both digastric muscles
hyoid muscle
what is the floor of the submental triangle made of
mylohyoid muscle
what is found in the submental
submental lymph nodes
what is the muscular triangle bounded by
median plane of neck
superior belly of omohyoid muscle
sternocleidomastoid muscle
what can be found inside the muscular triangle (7 things)
Thyroid and parathyroid glands
Thyroid and cricoid cartilages
Recurrent laryngeal nerves
Infrahyoid muscles
Pharynx and esophagus
Carotid sheath and contents
what are the 2 major cartilages of the larynx
thyroid and cricoid cartilages
what are the boundaries of the carotid triangle
posterior belly of digastric muscle
sternocleidomastoid muscle
superior belly of omohyoid muscle
what are the contents of the carotid triangle
Hypoglossal nerve and superior root of ansa cervicalis
External carotid artery and 5 of its branches
Cervical sympathetic chain (Superior Cervical Ganglion)
Carotid sheath and contents
what are the contents of the carotid sheath in the carotid triangle
-common carotid artery and internal carotid artery
-internal jugular vein
-vagus nerve
what are the 3 layers of tissue found in the neck (superficial to deep)
1. Skin
2. Subcutaneous (superficial, hypodermis) fascia
3. Investing fascia (the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia)
which muscle does the subcutaneous fascia house and what is this muscle used for
the Platysma
one of the muscles of facial expression
what type of muscle is the PLATYSMA and which nerve innervates it
1. very thin SKELETAL MUSCLE
2. innervated by the CERVICAL branch of the FACIAL NERVE (VII)
what muscles does the investing fascia envelope
-envelopes the entire neck deep to subcutaneous fascia
-sternocleidomastoid muscles ANTERIORLY
-trapezius muscle POSTERIORLY
what is the skin of the NECK innervated by and what type of innervation is this
-innervated by: sensory branches of the cervical plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C2 to C4)
-this is a CUTANEOUS innervation
what are the sensory branches of the cervical plexus
Lesser occipital nerve (C2)
Great auricular nerve (C2, C3)
Transverse Cervical nerve (C2, C3)
Supraclavicular nerve (C3, C4)
what are the 2 prominent superficial veins found in the neck
1. External Jugular
2. Anterior Jugular
how can you find the external jugular vein
by locating the great auricular nerve
**it is ALWAYS found in relation to the great auricular vein
outline the path of the external jugular vein
1. formed in region of the parotid gland
2. crosses the sternocleidomastoid
3. ends in the posterior triangle by piercing investing fascia
trace the path of the anterior jugular vein
1. beings in the submental triangle
2. travels inferiorly in the anterior triangle
Which muscle divides the antero-lateral neck into two triangles?
The STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID muscle divides the antero-lateral neck into two triangles
What four other named triangles is the sternocleidomastoid muscle a boundary for?
-the muscular triangle,
-the carotid triangle,
-the occipital triangle and
-the supraclavicular (subclavian) triangle
The middle third of the clavicle forms the boundary of which triangle?
The posterior triangle and subclavian triangle
What two triangles have the superior belly of the omohyoid as a boundary?
The muscular triangle and the carotid triangle
Which u-shaped bone forms a boundary of the submental triangle?
The hyoid bone
Which is the only non-bilateral triangle?
The submental triangle
What are the boundaries and floor of the submandibular triangle?
The boundries of the submandibular(digastric) triangle are the anterior and posterior bellies of digastric muscle and the body of the mandible.

The floor of the submandibular (digastric) triangle is the mylohyoid muscle.
The prevertebral muscles and their encasing prevertebral fascia form the floor of which triangle?
The posterior triangle
The spinal accessory nerve is found obliquely traversing which triangle? Be Specific.
The occipital triangle, a subdivision of the posterior triangle.
The bifurcation of the common carotid artery occurs in what triangle?
The carotid triangle
The viscera of the neck are found in what triangle? What are its boundaries?
The viscera of the neck are found in the muscular triangle.
The boundries of the muscular triangle are:
-Median plane of neck
-Superior belly of omohyoid muscle
-Sternocleidomastoid muscle
What deep cervical fascia encases the entire neck deep to the subcutaneous (superficial) fascia? What muscles are also encased by this deep fascial layer?
The investing layer of (deep) cervical fascia.
The muscle encased by it are the sternocleidomastoid (anteriorily) and trapezius (posteriorily).
Which cranial nerves can one access through the carotid triangle?
The vagus nerve(X) and the hypoglossal nerve (XII)
The brachial plexus and the subclavian artery and vein can be accessed through which triangle?
The subclavian triangle, a subdivision of the posterior triangle
What muscle is located in the subcutaneous fascia of the neck and what nerve innervates it? To what group of muscles does this muscle belong to?
The platysma muscle is the only muscle found in the subcutaneous fascia.
It is innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (VII). The platysma belongs to the muscles of facial expression.
The cutaneous nerves of the neck and associated areas arise from what nerve plexus? What spinal nerves contribute fibers to this plexus from their ventral primary rami? List each of these cutaneous nerves and the cervical spinal nerve(s), which contribut
The cutaneous nerves of the neck arise from the cervical plexus.
Spinal nerves C2-C4 contribute to this plexus.

The cutaneous nerves are as follows:
-Lesser occipital nerve (C2)
-Great auricular nerve (C2, C3)
-Transverse Cervical nerve (C2, C3)
-Supraclavicular nerve (C3, C4)
Which of the following triangles is formed by the superior belly of the omohyoid, the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and the posterior belly of the digastric muscle?

a. supraclavicular
b. submandibular
c. digas
The mylohyoid muscle forms the floor of the

a. muscular triangle
b. submental triangle
c. subclavian (supraclavicular) triangle
d. occipital triangle
The sternocleidomastoid muscle forms a boundary for all of the following triangles of the neck EXCEPT:

a. occipital
b. subclavian (supraclavicular)
c. submandibular
d. posterior
The carotid sinus is located in which of the following cervical triangles?

a. muscular
b. carotid
c. submandibular
d. occipital
Which of the following structures is observed passing through the occipital triangle?

a. subclavian vein
b. brachial plexus
c. spinal accessory nerve
d. cervical branch of facial nerve
e. external jugular vein
All of the following are located in the carotid triangle EXCEPT:

a. carotid body
b. lingual artery
c. vagus nerve
d. ascending pharyngeal artery
e. submandibular gland
The trapezius takes origin from all of the following EXCEPT:

a. clavicle and spine of scapula
b. vertebral spines C7 to T12
c. superior occipital protuberance
d. ligamentum nuchae
The mylohyoid muscle forms the floor of the

a. posterior triangle
b. submandibular triangle
c. muscular triangle
d. subclavian triangle
The anterior bellies of the two digastric muscles form the boundaries of the

a. carotid triangle
b. submandibular triangle
c. anterior triangle
d. submental triangle
The external jugular veins

a. lie in the carotid sheath lateral to the common carotid artery
b. are formed by the union of the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins
c. are connected by the jugular arch
d. receive blo
The skin of the occipital region and the auricle receive sensory innervation from the

a. lesser occipital nerve
b. great auricular nerve
c. transverse cervical nerve
d. a and b
e. a and c

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