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Geology Exam 2


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Orogenesis is a _____.
general term for the processes that produce mountains
Shale would have been most likely deposited in which of the following environments (based on the size of the clasts in shale)
The physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today also opperated in the geologic past.
Sedimentary rocks account for about ____ % of rock exposures on the continent.
Which of the following changes may occur during metamorphism?
All of the above (certain minerals may recrystallize, the rock becomes more compact, crystals may grow larger)
When certain minerals recrystallize with a preferred orientation that is perpendicular to the direction of the compression force, the rock exhibits?
As erosion removes the top of the mountain, the mountain will buoy upward. This is ?
When the rock above a fault plane moves down relative to the rock below, a _____ fault occurs.
A linear up folded structure with the oldest strata in the center is?
What type of metamorphic rock will shale normally become following metamorphism?
Large circular down warped structures are ?
The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault but when geologists consider the sense of movement on the fault, it is an example of a ____ fault.
Sedimentary Rocks ____.
All of the above (may contain fossils, hold important clues to the Earth's history, are layered, may be economically important)
Seperating sedimentary strata are ______ , flat surfaces along which rocks tend to seperate or break.
Bedding planes.
There are _____ ft. in a mile.
Common detrital sed. rocks, in order of increasing particle size, are _____.
Shale, sandstone ,conglomerate.
Which one of the following is NOT a process whereby sediment is lithified into solid sed. rock?
Detrital sediments could be found in all of the following environments except?
a salt flat (stagnant water)
There are large amounts of energy resources such as oil and gas found in the metamorphic rocks.
_____ refers to the processes by which unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid sed. rocks.
Most sandstone has a biochemical origin.
Organic processes of water dwelling organisms can form chemical sediments, said to be of _____ origin.
Many metamorphic rocks _____.
have a linear orientation of minerals
The process of metamorphism involves?
transformation of pre-existing rock
The primary agent of contact metamorphism is?
Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks.
At our latitude, a topographic quadrangle is a square with equal distances in miles on all 4 sides.
The largest quantity of metamorphic rock is produced by regional metamorphism.
During metamorphism a rock remains basically solid.
The agents of metamorphism are?
Heat, pressure, and chemical fluids
The zone of alteration surrounding an intruded magma is ?
Some environments new minerals may form during the metamorphic process.
The direction of the compass would point to on a particular topographic map is determined by?
the magnetic declination
Contour lines that are widely seperated indicate a steep gradient or slope.
A proportional map scale of 1:24000 means that one inch on the paper map equals ____ feet on the earth's surface?
Lines of longitude can range from 0 to 180 degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian.
There appears to be little connection between the theory of plate tectonics and current explanations of orogenesis.
In mountainous regions, the ?
earth's crust is thicker than average
The mountains on the Western North American Continent were produced in part by the accretion of small crustal blocks to the margin of the continent. These crustal fragments having distinct geologic histories are ?
The Himilayan Mountains are thought to have resulted from continent to continent collision.
Once the elastic limit of rock is surpassed,
The rock may deform plastically and the rock may rupture
In subduction zones, sediments are scraped off the descending oceanic plate and piled up in front of the overriding plate producing ?
Accretionary wedge
There are 4 factors that influence the strength of rock and how it will deform. They are?
Temperature, confining pressure, rock type, and time
The only place mountains can not form at a convergent boundary is where ocean crust meets ocean crust. It forms islands but it is not considered mountain building.
A relatively rapid form of mass wasting that is most characteristic in semiarid regions is
Debris flow
Which of the following statements best describes slump?
Slippage of a mass of material moving as a unit along a curved surface
A debris flow that occurs on the slope of a volcano is often referred to as ?
The angle of repose is ?
the steepest angle at which loose material remains stable w/o sliding down-slope
The freezing and thawing of soil can produce a gradual downhill motion of material called?
People can cause mass wasting by the oversteepening of slopes.
A special type of earthflow ______ somtimes occurs in association with earthquakes.
If soil and regolith are involved in a type of mass wasting, which one of the following terms would NOT be used in the description?
Folded rocks from mountain building are caused by metamorphism.
Would you expect brittle failure of rocks to occur near the surface during the mountain building process rather then at great depths?
Exam 3: At a bend in a river, the main erosion is
on the outside of the bend
Channel width X channel depth X velocity is the formula used to determine a stream's?
Today, many scientists and engineers recommend a structural approach to river flood control by putting in dikes, levees, and large concrete river containmetn projects to control the flow.
When the velocity of a river speeds up, the river channel tends to
Straighten out
IN the hydrologic cycle, the portion of water that eventually becomes part of the groundwater system is ?
Even in humid areas that are characterized by hills and valleys, the water table is usually flat.
The suspended load of a stream moves along the bottom of the channel by rolling, saltation, and sliding.
By applying the law of superposition, ____ dates can be determined.
Where the underlying bedrock is relatively uniform and flat lying, the slope of land dtermines the pattern of stream flow. The drainage pattern (tree like shape) that develops is ?
Dendritic pattern
An unconformity is ?
a gap in the geologic record
A natural levee is?
a depositional feature essentially parallel to the stream channel
It is usually NOT possible to obtain an accurate radiometric date from a sample of detrital sed. rock.
A mature or old age river has many rapids and waterfalls with narrow V shaped valleys
The process of matching layers of rock of similar age from diff. regions is?
Which one of the following represents the greatest expanse of time on the geologic time scale?
The drainage basin of 1 stream is seperated from another by an imaginary line called?
North America's largest river in terms of discharge is?
The Mississippi
Rock strata or sediments that do not readily allow flow of groundwater are?
When older igneous or meta. rocks are overlain by more flat lying strata, a ____ is present.
_____ is one of 5 factors that controls infiltration of water into the ground.
The intensity and duration of rainfall
In which type of rock will caves most commonly form?
A Yazoo Stream may form from water that can not flow back into a major river after flooding b/c of the natural levee.
Urbanization can cause a stream's discharge to decrease after rain events.
The ability of rock or sediment to allow flow of water between the pore spaces is ?
Fossils that denote particular short periods of time in the geologic past are?
Index fossils
A dam can create a local base level.
Rocks frmo the moon were instrumental in obtaining accurate numerical dating for the age of Earth.
The boundary seperating the Zone of Aeration and the Zone of Saturation is?
Water Table
Sed. can be carried downstream in the dissolved load by saltation.
If a water well is drilled and groundwater flows freely out of the well, the well is?
The velocity of a stream is dependent on?
All of the Above (gradient, cross sectional shape, stream size, roughness of channel)
An alpine glacier modifies the valley through which it moves and makes it?
U shaped
IN the groundwater system streams in humid areas are _____ streams because groundwater contributes to the stream.
The rock or sediment w/i the zone of saturation taht freely transmits and stores water is?
ANother name for the last Ice Age?
Pleistocene Epoch
Glacial erosion is done in 2 ways?
Plucking and abrasion
Which of the following is the largest reservoir of freshwater available for human consumption and use?
Crevasses in glaciers occur only in the upper 50 meters of the glacier b/c?
Below 50 meters ice behaves like plastic
A fjord is?
a glacial valley that is flooded or drowned w/ sea water
Ice Age glaciers had many indirect effects. Which one was NOt an effect?
formation of mountains
Milankovitch proposed 3 hypotheses to account for variation in solar radiation hitting the Earth causing the glaciers to advance. One hypothesis is that the shape of Earth's orbit aroudn the sun has varied over time. This is called?
When water is pumped from a well, a depression is often produced in the water table called?
Cone of depression
grow up from the floor of a cavern.
Could using salt to de-ice roads contaminate the groundwater?
When accumulation equals wastage, the front of the glacier does not move.
A perched water table will block water flow and stop the formation of springs on a hillside or valley wall.
A rock or sediment w/ high porosity and not very permeable is considered an aquifer.
The word _____ is an all embracing term for sediments of glacial origin.
Smooth, elongated hills composed of till that have steeper slopes that face the direcion of glacial ice advance are called?
The broad shaped amphitheater depressions at the heads of the glaciated valleys are ?
Till is deposited in the outwash plain from water melting off a glacier.
The time span on the Geologic time scale that includes the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic is the ?
Phanerozoic Era
Groups of fossil plants and animals succeed each other in a definite and determinable order and any period of time can be recognized by its respective fossils. This is?
None of the above
The total amount of sediment tat a stream can carry is?
A prominent feature of the Mid Atlantic Ridge is a very deep linear valley known as?
Rift valley
NJ is located on an active continental margin.
Sediment eroded from rocks on land and deposited on the ocean floor are?
Terrigenous Sediment
The development of this instrument greatly enhanced our knowledge of the ocean floor?
Echo sounder
In a few locations such as Hawaii, the mid oceanic ridge actually extends above sea level.
A baymouth bar is a man made feature designed to control wave erosion.
Which one of the following is NOT part of the passive continental margin?
Continental Trench
Directly seaward of the continental slope is a more gently sloping region known as?
Continental Rise
The location of an earthquake source is determined by?
When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The source is?
The Focus
The energy released by an earthquake is a measurement referred to as?
Which one of the following statements is true about primary "p"waves?
the travel faster then "s" waves
The Mercalli scale rates earthquake intensity on?
the amount of damage of structures
The position of Earth's surface directly above the earthquake source is?
The mechanism by which rocks store and release energy in the form of earthquakes is?
Elastic rebound
Geologists believe that atolls form by?
Coral growth on submerging volcanoes
S waves generated from an earthquake can not be detected on the opposite side of the earth b/c?
S waves cannot travel thru the liquid outter core of earth
The movement of sand parallel to the shore?
All of the above (created by waves approaching oblique angle, may create spits, is achieved by longshore currents, is important reason for constructoin of groins)
The Coastal Plain Province of NJ is the youngest geologically.
The highland province is the core remnant of an older larger mountain range much like the Himilayas.
Most of our knowledge of Earth's deep interior comes from?
Seismic Waves
The San Andreas Fault is a normal fault w/ considerable vertical movement.
A natural ridge of sand projecting into a bay and oftern having a hooked end is?
The energy that creates waves in the ocean comes from tides.
The smallest daily tides is expected during a ?
Neap Tide
WHich of the following is designed to prevent or slow shoreline erosion?
Beach Norishment and Seawall
When are waves affected by the sea floor?
When water depth is = to 1/2 the wavelength
The height, length, and period of a wave depends on?
All of the above (fetch, wind speed, length of time wind blows)
The oceanic trench system is the major site of?
Subduction zone w/ the formation of magma
Barriers built parallel to the beach to protect boats?
Shorelines tend to straighten out given enough time. Older shorelines have fewer headlines.
1 result of wave refraction is?
wave energy is concentrated on headlands projecting into the water
Even w/ new technologies, short range earthquake predicition are unreliable.
The coast of Cali is considered?
Emergent Coastline
P waves are the most destructive type of seismic waves .
The 2 types of seismic body waves are?
P and S waves
The destruction caused by an earthquake is affected by?
ground type, distance from eq, and building design
Large waves that can be created by movements in the ocean floor are?
The layer of Earth that is considered to be solid and comprised mostly of nickel and iron is?
Inner core
Which of the following is correct regarding a wave in the open ocean?
B and C (waves are called waves of oscillation and the wave form moves forward but the water particle do not advance)
Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are ex. of estuaries on?
Submergent Coastlines
Fetch is?
the distance that wind travels across open water
b/c of liquefaction, it is not recommended to build houses near beaches or shorelines.
In the oceans, you would expect to find thick accumulations of sed. on the midocean ridges.
When teh moon and sun are aligned at 90 degress, one would expect more eq and tsunamis.
There are 3 types of continental crust in NJ. They are?
Shield, folded mountain belt, and stable platform
Seamounts are?
volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
The gently sloping area directly offshore is?
Continental Shelf
When a wave breaks it changes from being a wave of oscillation to a wave of ?
Deposits that form as a result of dense sediment laden water running down submarine canyons are?
______ bedding occurs in the sedimentary deposits and shows fine grained sed. at the top and coarser on the bottom.
The continental crust is made of granitic rocks and is lighter and thicker than oceanic crust which is basaltic rocks.

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