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Cariology Beavers


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The study of disease and its determinants in populations and groups is known as
A chronic disease caused by bacteria the destroys enamel, dentin and cementum
Dental Caries
The neglected American epidemic describes what
Dental disease
Use of survey methods to collect data about a particular defined population to describe their oral health status is called what
Descriptive Epidemiology
Use of specific designs to test a hypothesis and demonstrate and association and establish a relationship is called
Analytical Epidemiology
Clinical trials designed to test the cause or efficacy of an agent or a regimen is called what type of epid.
Experimental Epid.
the number of individuals with affected teeth or surfaces would be desribed as the
the number of new caries or lesions in a defined period of TIME would be called what
What the data of a particular study is actually showing to happen is refered to as a
the decayed, missing, filled permanent teeth is shortened by what acronym
dmft for decidous
the number of decayed missing or filled permanent surfaces is shortened into what acronym
dmfs for decidous
What are the trends of percentage of caries free kids from 1974 to 1980 to 1989
25, 37, 50
What percent of adults exhibited evidence of past or present caries
what percent of children constitute 80% of all dental caries
What is the single most common childhood disease
tooth decay
note its 5 times more prevalent than asthma
for each child without medical insurance there is how many without dental insurance
how many hours of school are lost due to dental problems
51 million
What things did the Oklahoma Oral Health Needs Assesment Survey screen for
# sealants, untreated cavities, fillings, missing teeth and need for dental treatment
What percent of oklahoma 3rd graders have experienced some form of dental caries
goal by 2010 to reduce to 42%
what percent of oklahoma 3rd graders had untreated caries
goal by 2010 to reduce to 21%
What pecent of oklahoma 3rd graders had at least one sealant
goal by 2010 to raise to 50%
What were the five reccomendations to improve oral health for oklahoma children and adolescents
Increase education efforts of importance of dental health as a whole
Increase Access to dental care
Emphasize importance of dental sealants to both public and dentists
Increase number of public water systems with fluoride
Decrease incidence of tobacco use
What old ass dentist wrote books about the pathology of caries
W. D. Miller and GV Black
Who used the term gelatinoid plaques
GV black
What 3 discoveries had a major impact on development of cariology and restorative dentistry
1930s- relate sugar to caries
1940s- role of microorganisms and fact they can spread caries from animal to animal
1940s- Demonstration of fluorides kickass abilities to reduce cavities
What are some of the bacteri names that cause caries
STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS - gram + aerobic, non motile, acid producing
s. sobrinus
s. sanguis
Lactobacilli- gram +, non motile rods that produce acid under ANAEROBIC conditions
What percent of enamel is mineralized, same with dentin
What are some things saliva has in it to keep ph around 7
Electrolytes and organic molecules, sodium bicarbonate and phosphates
What is a salivary protein name that raises pH in the piehole
what are saliva's functions
lube, helps with mastication, swallowing, speech, aids in digestion- alpah amylase
What is the most abundant salivary enzyme and what does it do
Aplha Amylase
breaks down carbs to maltose, maltotriose and dextrins
Note acids can form during this breakdown
Saliva flow rate can be influenced by what
meds, radiation therapy to head and neck, autoimmune diseases-AIDS, menopause, eating disorders, diabetes, depression and sliaolithiasis
What is slialalsitilhtihithsihishishsihiis
stone in salivary gland
The basal salivary rate can be decreased by what
sleep, fear and depression-
also water balance, gland size nature and duration of stimulus, thought smell and sight of food
Where are IgG usually found
in blood
where are Secretory Immunoglobulins found(S-IgA)
secreted by minor salivary glands
what protects bacteria from neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes
Bacterial plaque biofilm
a dense non mineralized higly organized mass of bacterial colonies in a gel like intermicrobial matrix
Bacterial plaque biofilm or microbial plaque
what percent of population exhibits some form of perio disease
What are the 3 stages of bacterial plaque formation
formation of aquired pellicle,
bacterial colonization and
plaque maturation
the presence of what does not mean youll get a carious lesion but must be present for a lesion to happen
what are some causes of caries
hygiene practices, diet, attitude toward health, disability, meds cause side effect, lack of knowledge
caries is a disease that has no single cause, it could be defined as what
deminerilizatino/remin. occure where
at interface of tooth surface and biofilm deposits
note removal of biofilm can allow remineralization
factors that determin loss of mineralization are
magnitude of ph fluctuations, thickness of biofilm, salivary composition/secretion and rate, diet, fluoride concentration in saliva
what is the structural backbone of dentin
it holds apatite crystals together
a network of diffusion pathways in enamel is called
passage of light through the tooth, where unhealthy enamel areas letting light through can be viewed is called what
note used more often for anterior teeth
the process of acids produced by cariogenic bacterial plaque difuse into microchannels(between enamel crystals) and desolve the minreal in tooth structure is called what
overtime a demineralized are may turn darker from what factors
food, beverages and tobacco
demineralized tooth structure causes a decrease in what, which is appearent as a radiolucency on film
T or F
caries is never farther advanced than what the radiograph shows
What are some classes of caries
Pit and fissure
occlussal-appear once lesion reaches DEJ
Smooth surface
Interproximal-develop apical to contacts
Root Surface- also referred to as cervical, cementum or radicular
What are some methods used to stop carious lesions
Fluroide, decrease sugar intake, improved hygiene
caries less than half way thru enamel are called
incipient caries
how does the caries spread out once under the DEJ
laterally and moves toward pulp
a tooth may be symptomatic to hot, cold or both when what
the caries is halfway to pulp
what are some of the carious shapes you might see on radiograph
half moon, or triangular(chevron)
what caries type shows a strong tendency to increase with age
root caries
what is nescessary for root caries
gingival recession due to periodontal disease
also associated with conditions that cause xreostomia
caries that happen a existing margins of restorations are called
Recurrent Caries-
best detected with explorer cause they can be obscured radiographically
how should you check for recurrent caries
discolorations around existing restoration, cracks in restoration, or space in between restoration and enamel
widespread rapidly progressive destructionary caries are called what
Rampant caries
form of rampant caries caused by xerostomia due to atrophy of salivary glands and follows head and neck radiation therapy
Radiation caries
incipient or more advanced caries that are prevented from advancing due to change in hygiene/oral environment are called what
arrested caries
may appear yellow, brown or black exposed dentin but is very hard and polished
remineralization occurs if what occurs
saliva neutralizes acid,
saliva also allows calcium and phosphate to diffuse back into tooth thru microchannels
before eating what does plaque ph range from
6.2 to 7.0
enamel demineralization occurs around what ph range
what ph does root surface demineralize at
6.0 to 6.7
the amount of demineralization depends on what factors
frequency and length of time acid is contacting tooth
what ppm is fluoride in needed in saliva to get beneficial effects
.04 to .08 ppm
flouride inhibits carious process by three mechanisms what are they
inhibiting bacterial plaque
inhibiting demineralization
enhancing remin. by creating caries resistant surface(fluoroapitite)
name some chemotherapeutic agents used to fight caries
chlorhexidine gluconate- fatally disrupts cell membrane of bacterial cells

xylitol- causes environment which prevents s. mutans from adhering, studies show it can disrupt passage from mom to baby
occlusal surfaces PM and molars, facial and lingual surfaces of molars and lingual surfaces of maxillary incisors
Class I
cavities on proximal surfaces of PM and molars
Class II
cavities on proximal surfaces of incisors and canines not involved with incisal angle
Class III
cavities in proximal surface of incisors or canines that involve incisal angle
Class IV
cavities in cervical 1/3 of faial or lingual surfaces(not pit or fissure)
Class V
cavities on incisal edges of ant teeth and cusp tip of posteriors
Class VI

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