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Human Health and Disease


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What is the Chain of Infection?
Pathogen --> Vector --> Host
The 5 Pathogens
Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasitic worms
What is a Vector
a vehical that transmitts a pathogen
The 5 main vectors
animal/bug bites, air, fluids, people (hands), food, water
What 3 things does a host's body have under optimal conditions.
warm, moist, pH
The 6 step process of infection.
Invasion, incubation, cell death, chemical and histamin release, immune response, recovery
Define: Immunity
Protection against infectious diseases
5 barries that are used for immunity
Skin, sweat, oils, saliva, digestive chemicals
5 parts of the immune systems
lymph system, white blood cells, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes/vessels
What are the 2 types of white blood cells
B & T Cells
What is the function of the Thymus
to identify invaders
What are the invaders (pathogens) of the body's system called.
What is the function of the Spleen.
Produce antibodies
What do the lymph nodes/vessels carry
Lymph Fluid
What cause the swelling of the arm in former cancer patients.
A build of of lymph fluid that can't be removed from the arm because the lymph nodes were damaged in surgery.
What is the funtion of Humoral immunity?
produces antibodies against specific antigens.
Is Humoral immunity specfic or general immunity?
Humoral immunity mainy fights what 2 pathogens?
viruse and bacteria
What type of white blood cell works with the humoral immunity?
What are the 2 types of humoral immunity?
Active and Passive
How do the body gains active immunity?
The body develops its own antibodies when its been infected.
How do the body gains passive immunity?
The body gains antibodies by vaccination
What does Cell-mediated immunity work against?
work against agents in general.
Is Cell-mediated immunity specific of general?
What 3 things does cell-mediated immunity mainly fight agaings?
cancer cells & tissue, fungi, parasites
What type of white blood cell is used by cell-mediated immunity?
What are the names of the T-Cells and other cells found in cell-mediated immunity.
T-cell (lymphocytes) & macrophages
What are the 4 signs of losing the battle against infection.
swollen lymph nodes, swelling,high temp., abscesses & pus
What can have a great impact on the immune system if not managed.
Define: Allergies
hypersenitivity to elements in the enviroment or diet
Define: Immunotherapy
passive immuninity like (i.e. vaccines)
Define: Autoimmune disorders
normal cells seen as foreign invaders
What are 3 examples of autoimmune disorders
rheumatoid arhritis, systemic lupus, multiple sclerosis
Women are __ times more likely to have an autoimmune disorder than men.
3 times
Define: Immune deficiency
abnormally developed immune system
Define: Pathogen
Disease causing microorganism
What size are viruse.
What are viuruse made of
DNA or RNA + Protien
Viruses are made of both DNA and RNA, true of false?
Why are viruses hard to fight.
They look similar to the body's cells.
why does viruses look similar to the body's cells?
They use the instruction information found on the the cells they attack.
Why do viruses attack cells.
They can't reproduce on their own, so they need the cell's reprodutive mechanism to replicate.
Can you treat a viruse with an antibiotic?
What are used to treat a viruse?
anitviral drugs.
Bacteria are multicelled organisms, true or false?
false, single celled
What pathogens cause the most problems?
what pathogen is the most commmon organism on earth.
If bacteria is in the body, the host will die within minutes, true or false.
false, bacteria are need by the body in small amounts.
What are the 2 ways that bacteria are harmful to the body.
They release toxins or secret enzymes that breakdown cells.
What is an exmaple of a toxic effect of bacteria.
Toxic Shock Syndrome
What are used to treat bacteria
that are 2 possible side effects from using antibotics.
allergic reaction or resistance
What are fungi?
single or multicelled organsims.
Why do fungi need other organism to thrive.
They are unable to make their own food, or hunt so they must secret an enzyme to break down other organsims and aborb them for their nutrients.
What is a Protozoa.
A single celled organism or animal that destroys cells
Protozoa are very common in the US, true or false.
what is an example of a protozoa diesease.
What are used to treat fungal disease.
antifungal drugs and ointments
What part of a protozoa do you treat.
The symptoms
What pathogen competes with the host for nutrients?
parasitic worms
What do parastic worms attack?
organs and tissue
How do you treat parastic worms?
Veneral diseases are also know as the ___/___ disease.
Doctors are not required by law to report veneral disease, but the government suggest that they do for public health reasons, true or false.
False, they must be reported by law.
STDs are highest amoung __ to __ yr. olds.
16-24 yr olds
what are the 3 reason that young adults have the highest rates of STDs.
lack of health standards, prevention, and access to HC
What is the chances of getting an STD in a person's lifetime.
1 in 4 (25%)
How much does STD cost the HC system.
$17 trillion
What are 4 health impacts caused by STDs.
sterility, ectopic pregnancies, premature birth, miscarriages
What 3 groups are at the highest risk of getting an STI.
young adults, homosexual men, and newborns with an infected mother.
What puts people at higher risk of getting an STD.
unsafe sex practices.
what 3 unsafe sex behaviors can lead to getting an STD.
prior drug or alcohol use, muliti partners, invulnerability
What percent of people with a STI show no syptoms?
What STD is know as "the clap"
How are rates of gonorrhea infection changed over the past decade.
reemerged and has become very common
What 3 groups are most like to get Gonorrhea?
teens, young adults, and black men.
Black men are __times more likely to get gonorrhea than white men.
40 times
In women, what 2 things can gonorrhea cause?
Sterility and (PID) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
What are the 2 main symptoms of having of gonorrhea?
yellowish white pus discharge and buring during urination
How soon does symptoms start after someone gets gonorrhea?
2-9 days
What percent of women with gonorrhea have no symptoms?
When a newborn is exposed to gonorrhea from the mother during delivery what 2 things can happen to the infant.
conjuntivites and blindness
What are 5 long term effects caused by gonorrhea?
sterility, urniary tract obsturctions, arthritis, heart inflammation, and meningitis.
What other dieseas is often found in a person that has Gonorrhea?
What drugs are used to treat Gonorrhea?
Are rates of syphilis infections increasing or decresing?
When do people get screened for Syphilis?
Everytime they are screened for any STD
What is the 1st degree symptom of having syphilis?
Chancers (lesions)
Define: Chancers
lesions or open sores of bacteria
Where do the chancers form?
on infected mucous tisse or membranes.
After getting syphilis, how long does it take for lesions to form?
3-4 weeks
What are the 5 2nd degree symptoms of syphilis that develop.
rash, white patches, low temp., moist sores, temporary pubic baldness
How long does it take for 2nd degree symptoms of syphilis to develop?
1-12 months
What 4 things happen with latent syphilis?
no signs or symptoms, low transmission, some flare-ups,incubation
What are 3 complications of 3rd degree syphilis?
brain, heart, and organ problems
What degree of syphilis is rare?
3rd degree
what fration of untreated syphilis infected people develop 3rd degree syphilis.
How long must a person have to have syphilis before they reach 3rd degree syphilis?
10-20 years
What specific drug is used to treat syphilis, and is it antivirual or antibiotic.
Penicillin an antibotic
Can you be completely cured from syphilis?
Yes, if caught in its early stages
What does HSV stand for?
Herpes Simplex Viruse
How many types of HSV are there, and what are they?
2, HSV-1 & HSV-2
What are the 2 common names for HSV-1?
Fever blisters or cold sores
What is the main symptom of HSV?
blistering of the skin and membranes
What type of HSV is the most common?
How many people in the in the US under the age of 12 have HSV-1?
135 million
What is the common name for HSV-2?
Genital herpes
What are the for main areas that develop blister when a person has gential herpes?
geitialia, butt, thigh, pubic area
HSV has incresed by what percent since the 1970s?
__ in __ people have HSV-2.
1 in 5
what percent of people with HSV-2 don't know they have it?
what age group has the highest rates of genital herpes?
20-29 yr. olds
What STD is often missed with standard screening?
When does a person get HSV?
They always have it in their body, but something must trigger it for it to express itself with blister.
When HSV goes into remission, where in the body does the viruse go?
Spinal Chord
Herpes is not that contagies, in fact you can touch it and not be infected, true of false.
false, it is very contagious and is spred by touch.
If a mother has gential herpes, how would the doctor deliver her baby?
What kind of treatment is used for HSV?
Antivirual drugs
What percent of people who take drugs fro HSV still have reoccurences?
What 3 things can a person do to avoid a HSV breakout?
hot baths, warm enivronments, and long term stress
What does HPV stand for?
Human Papilloma viruse
What is the most common STD?
How many women in the US have HPV?
20 million
what percent of college students have HPV?
What percent of people with HPV don't have symptoms?
What is the most common symptom of HPV?
Gential warts
HPV causes what percent of cervical cancer?
What is a treatment for HPV that helps the personal immune system?
interferon injections
What treatment is needed when HPV causes cervical cancer?
What is the treatment for genital warts?
Therapy, over time, will complete eradicate HPV, true of false?
What percent of people who recieve treatment for HPV have reoccurences?
What is another name for pubic lice?
What STD, is not always transmitted by having sex?
Pubic lice
Where do crabs live?
in hairy areas
Where do mites lay their eggs?
at the base of the hair shaft
what is the 2 main symptoms of pubic lice.
intense itching and sores from scratching
what is the #1 treatment for crabs?
what should a person do if someone in the house has pubic lice?
wash all the bed linen, clothes, etc.
What does HIV stand for?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Is there a cure for HIV?
What does HIV do?
Virus replicates and breaks down "cell-mediated" immunity
What type of white blood cell is reduced in the body because of HIV?
What is the specific name of the T-Cells affected by HIV, and what is its nickname?
CD4 T-lymphocytes, aka CD4 helper-T cells.
When the T-cells are reduced and cell-mediated immunity is decrease what 2 things can develop?
cancer and infections
Whad does AIDS stand for?
Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome
What 2 thing must a person have to be considered to have AIDS?
1) a t-cell count of less than 200 cells/mm3 or 2) reoccuring pneumonia, Tb, or cervial cancer
What are the 4 main complications caused by AIDS?
Fever, diarrhea, lose weight, diminished mental function
What are the early syptoms of HIV, and how long from the 1st symptoms does it take for AIDS to develop?
Flu like symptoms, weeks to decades
Unknown 30 years ago, what is the #1 infectious cause of death world wide?
What are 4 things that tranmit HIV?
blood, semen, vaginal fluids, breast milk
Casual kissing, touching, shared dishes and glass all can transmit HIV, true or false?
How many people in the US have HIV?
How many new cases of HIV are diognosed each year?
How many people with HIV have AIDS?
What age group is HIV infection rates increasing?
50 and above
What percent increase was the infection rate for people over the age of 50.
Why has HIV infection rates increased in the 50+ age group?
Viagra, and the idea that they don't need protection becuase they can't get pregnant.
How many people world wide have HIV-AIDS?
36 million
How many people in Sub-Sahara Africa have HIV-AIDS
25.3 million
The number of people with HIV-AIDS doubles every 10 years, true or false?
what percent of all AID cases are in Africa?
What percent of deaths due to HIV-AID are in Africa?
In what 2 countries in Africa does 25% of the entire population have HIV-AIDS?
Zimbabwe & Botswana
Orginally, what 2 groups were at the greatest risk of getting HIV-AIDS?
gay men and injection drug abusers
Today, HIV-AIDS cases in heterosexuals have increased from __ percent to ___ percent?
2% to 15%
Women account for what fraction of all HIV-AIDS cases?
African American women are 13% of the total population of women, however black women account for __percent of HIV-AIDS cases?
Blacks and latinos account for 25% of the total population, but they are what percent of new HIV-AIDS cases?
What 5 groups of people are most likely to get HIV-AIDS?
teen girls, people who have a STD, people who have sex with multiple partners, people who have anal sex, and people who have oral sex
Overall, have the infections of HIV-AIDS decrease, and if so will the trend continue?
yes, but decrese rate is slowing because rate in gay men are increasing and more people are doing riky sexual activities
What 2 things are being used to decrease the rate of AIDS
education and health promotion
Programs have caused what percent of the decrease in AIDS?
Blood screening has is 99.9% effective in preventing HIV infection due to blood transfusion, true of false?
What percent of babies being born to HIV infected mothers, do NOT have HIV because of drug therapy during preganancy?
What is the most effictive HIV-AIDS treatment?
What does HARRT stand for?
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
How does HARRT work?
It reduces the viral load
What is the HARRT regimen?
rigorus drug regimen over a long period of time
How much does HARRT treatment cost per year?
HIV-AIDS is a how many tier test?
How long must a person have HIV before it can be detected by screening?
3-6 months
What is the first type of HIV-AIDS screening?
anitbody testing
What is the 2nd tier of a HIV test (only done if the first test is postive)?
virus test
Vaccination programs decrese the risk of developing many common infectious diseases by what percent?
What is one of the greatest Public Health achievements in history?
What are the 3 types of immunization?
a single dose, a series of vaccines, booster shots
What percent of children don't receive their complete immunization?
What are the 2 groups with the highest rates of children who don't have complete immunization?
Black and Low Income
How many people in N. America have HIV?
How many people in E. Europe and Central Asia have HIV?
How many people in the Caribbean have HIV?
How many people in Latin America have HIV?
1.4 Million
How many in W. Europe have HIV?
How many in Mid and N. Africa have HIV?
How many people in S. Africa have HIV?
25.3 Million
East Asia and the Pacific has how many people with HIV?
How many people in South Asia has HIV?
5.8 million
How many people in Austrilia and New Zealand have HIV?
Vaccines are recommended for children under what age?
18 months
What 11 vaccines are recommended for children.
Hepatitis B, Measeles, Mumps, Rubella, Diphteria, Tetanus, Pertussia, HIB, Pneumococcoal,Polio, and varicella
What does Hepatitis B targe?
the liver
You must re-immunized before college for Mesles, but what percent don't and are now at risk?
What is another name for Rubella?
The Germen Measles
Who is most at risk for the Germen Mesales?
New borns
How often should you get the Diptheria and tetanus immunization.
Every 10 years
What is another name for Pertussis?
The whopping cough
What does HIB stand for?
Hemophilis Influinzia-B
What does HIB cause?
HIB caused Mengitis has decreased by what percent?
Pneumococcal immunizies against what, and what does this viruse casue?
the pneumococcal virus, pneumonia
Polio is almost non-existent, true or false?
What does polio do?
affects neuromuscular system
Varicell is the vaccine for what?
Cicken pox
Which of the 11 vaccines is the most recent?
Most vaccines are combination vaccines, so what are the 5 vaccine doeses?
What are the 2 types of Menigitis?
Bacterial and Viral
What does menigiites do to the body?
inflamation to the brain and spinal chord, and brain damage
Of the 2,600 cases of menigites, how many were college students?
What percent of menigites cases die?
what 3 ways does menigities spred?
kissing, sharing cigretts and drinks, and prolonged exposure
What is Dorm frosh?
Menigities in college students, cuased by the close quarters of dorms
Dorm Frosh effects what percent of students?
Dorm frosh accounts for what percent of all menigities cases?
How many die each year due to Dorm Frosh?
What are the 8 symptoms of menigities?
2)sever headaches
3)stiff neck
6)lethargy (tierd)
What are the 5 types of Hepatites?
What are the 3 Viral strains of Hepatites?
A, B, and C
Which type of Hepatites is the least serious?
Hep-A is casued by what?
Poor sanitation
Is there a vaccine for Hep-A and Hep-B?
Is Hep-B potential fatal?
How is Hep-B transmitted?
Blood and fluids from needles and sex
What other Hepatites is Hep-C similar to?
How many people in the world have Hep-B?
How many people in the world have Hep-C?
4 million
Which is the most infectious, Hep-B or Hep-C?
Hep-C is also known as what?
HCV has incresed how many times in the last decade?
3 times
What is the #1 reason for liver transplants in the US?
What is Tuberculosis (Tb)?
A highly contagious bacterial infection in the lungs.
How is Tb transmitted?
Its airborne
What is the leading cause of death world wide?
what fraction of people world wide have Tb (most of which have no symptoms)?
Have rates of Tb decrease?
When was the last increse in Tb before the rate decreased again?
What are the 5 cause of an increase in Tb?
5)Resistant strains of Tb
Who are the 3 groups that are at the greatest risk of getting Tb?
1)prison population
2)nursing homes
3)people in poor ventelated areas
What 3 medical steps are taken to detect Tb?
1)Tb bacteria test
What is another name for Monoducleosis?
The kissing disease

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