Psyc Research methods part 1
Terms
undefined, object
copy deck
 Confirmation bias
 The human tendency to seek our information that confirms what is already believed
 Research
 The principal method acquiring knowledge and uncovering the causes for behavior.
 Scientific Explanations
 A tentative explanation for a phenomenon, based on objective observation and logic, and subject to empirical test.
 Parimonious Explanations
 An explanation or theory that explains a relationship using relatively few assumptions.
 Commonsense Explanations
 Loose explanations for behavior that are based on what be believe to be true about the world.
 Beliefbased explanations
 An explanation for behavior that is accepted without evidence because it comes from a trusted source or fits within a larger framework or belief
 Pseudoexplantions
 An explanation proposed for a phenomenon that simply relabels the phenomenon without really explaining it.
 Circular Explanations (Tautology)
 An explanation of behavior that refers to factors whose only proof of existence is that behavior they are being called on to explain
 Method of authority
 Relying on authoritative sources (for example, books, journals, scholars) for information.
 Rational Method
 Developing explanations through a process of deductive reasoning
 Scientific Method
 The method of inquiry preferred by scientists. It involves observing phenomena, developing hypotheses, empirically testing the hypotheses, and refining and revising hypotheses.
 Variable
 A characteristic or property that varies in amount or kind, and can be measured (eg height, weight)
 Hypothesis
 A tentative statement, subject to empirical test, about the expected relationship between variables.
 Basic Research
 Research carried out primarily to test a theory or empirical issues.
 Applied Research
 Research carried out to investigate a realworld problem
 Deductive reasoning
 Reasoning that goes from the general to the specific. Forms the foundation of the rational method of inquiry.
 Theory
 A set of assumptions about the causes for behavior and the rules that specify how the causes operate. A theory is subjected to empirical test and retained, modified, or rejected.
 Empirical question
 A question that can be answered through objective observation.
 Operational definition
 A definition of a variable in terms of the operations used to measure it.
 Scientific Theory
 A theory that goes beyond simple hypothesis, deals with verifiable phenomena, and is highly ordered and structured.
 Law
 A relationship that has been substantially verified through empirical test
 Model
 Specific application of a general theoretical view. The term model is sometimes used as a synonym for theory.
 Mechanisitic explanation
 An explanation for a phenomenon given in terms of a mechanism that is assumed to produce it through an explicit chain of cause and effect
 Functional explanation
 An explanation for a phenomenon given in terms of its function, that is, what it accomplishes.
 Quantitative theory
 A theory in which terms are expressed mathematically rather than verbally.
 Qualitative theory
 A theory in which terms are expressed verbally rather than mathematically.
 Descriptive theory
 A theory that simply describes the relationship among variables without attempting to explain the relationship.
 Analogical theory
 A theory that explains a relationship through analogy to a wellunderstood theory
 Fundamental theory
 A theory that proposes a new structure or underlying process to explain how variables and constants relate.
 Domain
 The range of situations to which a theory applies. Also called the scope of a theory.
 Confirmational strategy
 A strategy for testing a theory that involves finding evidence that confirms the predictions made by the theory.
 Disconfirmational strategy
 A method of testing a theory that involves conducting research to provide evidence that disconfirms that predictions made by the theory.
 Literature review
 A review of relevant research and theory conducted during the early stages of the research process to identify important variables and accepted methods and to establish a rationale for research hypotheses.
 Primary source
 A reference source that contains the original, full report of a study. It includes all the details needed to replicate and interpret the study.
 Secondary source
 A reference source that summarizes information from a primary source and includes research reviews and theoretical articles.
 Referred Journal
 A journal whose articles have undergone prepublication editorial review by a panel of experts in the relevant field
 Nonreferred journal
 A journal in which articles do not undergo prepublication editorial review
 Paper session
 A meeting at a scientific convention at which the most uptodate research results are presented. A paper session may involve disseminating data by reading a paper or presenting a poster
 Personal communication
 Information obtained privately from another researcher (for example, by letter or phone.)
 Psych Info
 A computerized database system that indexes journals and book chapters relevant to psychology and related fields
 Psycharticles
 A computerized source of articles, downloadable in PDF format, that were published in the journals of the American Psychological Association
 Causal relationships
 A relationship in which changes to the value of one variable cause changes in the value of another.
 Correlational relationship
 A relationship in which the value of one variable changes systematically with the value of a second variable.
 Correlational research
 Research in which no independent variables are manipulated. Instead, two or more dependent variables are measured to identify possible correlational relationships
 Thrid variable problem
 A problem that interferes with drawing causal inferences from correlational results. A third, unmeasured variable affects both measured variables, causing the latter to appear correlated even though neither variable influences the other
 Directionlity problem
 A problem that interferes with drawing causal inferences from correlational results that involves not being able to clearly specify the direction of causality between variables.
 Experimental research
 Research in which independent variables are manipulated and behavior is measured while extraneous variables are controlled
 Independent variable

The variable that is manipulated in an experiment. Its value is determined by the experimenter, not the
subject.
or the variable whose effect is being studied  Treatment
 A level of an independent variable applied during an experiment. In multifactor designs, a specific combination of the levels of each factor
 Dependent variable

The variable measured in a study. Its value is determined by the behavior of the subject and may depend on the value of the independent variable
or the variable expected to change due to variations in the independent variable  Experimental group
 A group of subjects in an experiment that receives the nonzero level of the independent variable.
 Control group
 A group of subjects in an experiment that does not receive the experimental treatment. The data from the control group are used as a baseline against which data from the experimental group are compared.
 Extraneous variable
 Any variable that is not systematically manipulated in an experiment but that still may affect the behavior being observed
 Demonstration
 A nonexperimental technique in which some phenomenon is demonstrated. No control group is used.
 Internal validity
 The extent to which a study evaluates the intended hypotheses
 Confounding
 Two variables that vary together in such a way that the effects of one cannot be separated from the effects of the other
 External validity
 The extent to which the results of a study extend beyond the limited sample used in the study.
 Simulation
 A laboratory research technique in which you attempt to recreate as closely as possible a realworld phenomenon
 Testrest reliability
 A method of assessing the reliability of a questionnaire by administering repeatedly the same or parallel form of a test.
 Parallelforms relaibility
 Establishing the reliability of a questionnaire by administering parallel (alternate) forms of the questionnaire repeatedly.
 Splithalif reliability
 A method of assessing reliability of a questionnaire using a single administration of the instrument. The questionnaire is split into two parts, and responses from the two parts are correlated
 Accuracy
 Agreement of measurement with a known standard.
 Validity
 The extent to which a measuring instrument measures what it was designed to measure.
 Face Validity
 How well a test appears to measure (judging by its contents) what it was designed to measure. Example: a measure of mathematical ability would have face validity if it contained math problems.
 Content Validity
 Validity of a test established by judging how adequately the test samples behavior representative of the universe of behaviors the test was designed to sample.
 Criterionrelated Validity
 The ability of a measure to produce results similar to those provided by other, established measures of the same variable
 Concurrent Validity
 The validity of a test established by showing that its results can be used to infer an individualâ€™s value on some other, accepted test administered at the same time.
 Nominal Scale
 A measurement scale that involves categorizing cases into two or more distinct categories. This scale yields the least information.
 Ordinal Scale
 A measurement scale in which cases are ordered along some dimension (for example, large, medium, or small). The distances between scale values are unknown
 Interval Scale
 A measurement scale in which the spacing between values along the scale is known. The zero point of an interval scale is arbitrary.
 Ratio scale
 Highest scale of measurement; it has all of the characteristics of an interval scale plus an absolute zero point.
 Range effects
 A problem in which a variable being observed reaches an upper limit (ceiling effect) or lower limit (floor effect).
 Behavioural measure
 A measure of a subjectâ€™s activity in a situation; for example, the number of times a rat presses a level (frequency of responding).
 Physiological measure
 A measure of a bodily function of subjects in a study (for example, heart rate).
 Selfreport measure
 A measure that requires participants to report on their past, present, or future behavior.
 Predictive Validity
 The ability of a measure to predict some future behavior.
 Construct Validity
 Validity that applies when a test is designed to measure a â€œconstructâ€ or variable â€œconstructedâ€ to describe or explain behavior on the basis of theory (for example, intelligence). A test has construct validity if the measured values of the construct predict behavior as expected from the theory (for example, those with higher intelligence scores achieve higher grades in school).
 Qsort methodology
 A qualitative measurement technique that involves establishing evaluative categories and sorting items into those categories
 Demand characteristics
 Cues inadvertently provided by the researcher or research context concerning the purposes of a study or the behavior expected from participants.
 Role attitude cues
 Unintended cues in an experiment that suggest to the participants how they are expected to behave.
 Experimenter bias

When the behavior of the researcher influences the results of a study. Experimenter bias stems from two sources: expectancy effects and uneven treatment of subjects across treatments.
or
due to his or her expectations, the experimenter might inadvertently treat groups of subjects differently.  Expectancy effects
 When a researcherâ€™s preconceived ideas about how subjects should behave are subtly communicated to subjects and, in turn, affect the subjectsâ€™ behavior.
 Singleblind
 The person testing subjects in a study is kept unaware of the hypotheses being tested.
 Doubleblind
 Neither the participants in a study nor the person carrying out the study know at the time of testing which treatment the participant is receiving.
 Manipulation checks
 Measures included in an experiment to test the effectiveness of the independent variables.
 Population
 All possible individuals making up a group of interest in a study. For example, all U.S. women constitute a population. A small proportion of the population is selected for inclusion in a study (see sample).
 Sample
 A relatively small number of individuals drawn from a population for inclusion in a study. See also population.
 Generalization
 Applying a finding beyond the limited situation in which it was observed
 Random sample
 A sample drawn from the population such that every member of the population has an equal opportunity to be included in the sample.
 Nonrandom sample
 A specialized sample of subjects used in a study who are not randomly chosen from a population.
 Institutional review board (IRB)
 A committee that screens proposals for research using human participants for adherence to ethical standards
 Volunteer Bias
 Bias in a sample that results from using volunteer participants exclusively
 Deception
 A research technique in which participants are misinformed about the true nature and purpose of a study. Deception is ethical if the researcher can demonstrate that important results cannot be obtained in any other way.
 Role playing
 Alternative to deceptive research that involves having participants act as though they had been exposed to a certain treatment
 Debriefing
 A session, conducted after an experimental session, in which participants are informed of any deception used and the reasons for the deception
 Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC)
 A committee that screens proposals for research using animal subjects and monitors using institutional animalcare facilities to ensure compliance with all local, state, and federal laws governing animal care and use.
 Behavioral categories
 The general and specific classes of behavior to be observed in an observational study.
 Cohen's Kappa
 A popular statistic used to assess interrater reliability. It compares the observed proportion of agreement to the proportion of agreement that would be expected if agreement occurred purely by chance.
 Intraclass correlation coefficient
 A measure of agreement between observers that can be used when your observations are scaled on an interval or ratio scale of measurement
 Qualitative data
 Data in which the values of a variable differ in kind (quality) rather than in amount
 Naturalistic observation
 Observational research technique in which subjects are observed in their natural environments. The observers remain unobtrusive so that they do not interfere with the natural behaviors of the subjects being observed.
 Ethnography
 A nonquantitative technique used to study and describe the functioning of cultures through a study of social interactions and expressions between people and groups.
 Participant observation
 An observational research technique in which a researcher insinuates him or herself into a group to be studied
 Nonparticipant observation
 An observational research technique in which the observer attends group functions and records observations without participating in the groupâ€™s activities.
 Sociometry
 A nonexperimental research technique involving identifying and measuring interpersonal relationships within a group
 Interrater reliability
 The degree to which multiple observers agree in their classification of quantification of behaviour.
 Case history
 A nonexperimental research technique in which an individual case is studied intensively to uncover its history (for example, a patient in therapy).
 Archival research
 A nonexperimental research strategy in which you make use of existing records as your basic source for data.
 Content analysis
 A nonexperimental research technique that is used to analyze a written or spoken record for the occurrence of specific categories of events
 Metaanalysis
 A statisticsbased method of reviewing literature in a field that involves comparing or combining the results of related studies. See also traditional literature review.
 Inferential statistics
 researchers generalize beyond actual observations. Concerned with making an inference from the sample involved in the research to the population of interest and to provide an estimate of popular characteristics
 Standard error of the mean
 An estimate of the amount of variability in expected sample means across a series of samples. It provides an estimate of the deviation between a sample mean and the underlying population mean.
 Degrees of freedom (df)
 The number of scores that are free to vary in a distribution of a given size having a known mean.
 Type I error
 Deciding to reject the null hypothesis when, in fact, the null hypothesis is true. Also referred to as an alpha error.
 Type II error
 Deciding not to reject the null hypothesis when, in fact, the null hypothesis is false. Also referred to as a beta error
 Alpha level
 The probability of obtaining a difference at least as large as the one actually obtained, given that the difference occurred purely as a result of chance factors. By convention, the maximum acceptable alpha level of .05 (5 chances in 100 or 1 change in 20).
 Critical region
 Portion of the sample distribution of a statistic within which observed values of the statistic are considered to be statistically significant. Usually the 5 percent of cases found in the upper and/or lower tail(s) of the distribution.
 t test
 An inferential statistic used to evaluate the reliability of a difference between two means. Versions exist for betweensubjects and withinsubjects designs and for evaluating a difference between a sample mean and a population mean.
 t test for independent samples
 A parametric inferential statistic used to compare the means of two independent, random samples in order to assess the probability that the two samples came from populations having the same mean.
 ttest for correlated samples
 A parametric inferential statistic used to compare the means of two samples in a matchedpairs or withinsubjects design in order to assess the probability that the two samples came from populations having the same mean
 z test for the difference between two proportions
 A parametric inferential statistic used to determine theprobability that two independent, random samples came from populations having the same proportion of â€œsuccessesâ€ (for example, persons favoring a particular candidate).
 Analysis of varians (ANOVA)
 An inferential statistic used to evaluate data from experiments with more than two levels of an independent variable or data from multifactor experiments. Versions are available for betweensubjects and withinsubjects designs
 F ratio
 The test statistic computed when using an analysis of variance. It is the ratio of the betweengroups variance and withingroups variance.
 P value
 In a statistical test, the probability, estimated from the data, that an observed difference in sample values arose through sampling error. p must be less than or equal to the chosen alpha level for the difference to be statistically significant
 Planned comparisons
 Hypothesisdirected statistical tests made after finding statistical significance with an overall statistical test (such as ANOVA).
 Unplanned comparisons
 Comparison between means that is not directed by your hypothesis and is made after finding statistical significance with an overall statistical test (such as ANOVA).
 Percomparison error
 The alpha level for each of any multiple comparisons made among means.
 Familywise error
 The likelihood of making at least one Type I error across a number of comparisons
 Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
 Variant of the analysis of variance used to analyze data from experiments that include a correlational variable (covariate).
 Chisquare
 Nonparametric inferential statistic used to evaluate the relationship between variables measured on a nominal scale
 MannWhitney U test
 Nonparametric inferential statistic used to evaluate data from a twogroup experiment in which the dependent variable was measured along at least an ordinal scale. It can also be used on interval or ratio data if the data do not meet the assumptions of the t test for independent samples.
 Wilcoxon signed ranks test
 A nonparametric statistical test that can be used when the assumptions of the t test for correlated samples are seriously violated
 Power
 The ability of an experimental design or inferential statistic to detect an effect of a variable when one is present
 Effect size
 The amount by which a given experimental manipulation changes the value of the dependent variable in the population, expressed in standard deviation units.
 Data transformation
 Mathematical operation applied to raw data, such as taking the square root or arcsine of the original scores in a distribution. Often applied to data that violate the assumptions of parametric statistical tests, to help them meet those assumptions.
 Characteristics of a GOOD theory

1.Can account for the data collected
2.Has explanatory relevance (logical soundness)
3.Is testable
4.Predicts novel events
5.Is parimonious  What are the stepts in research?

1.Ask a question
2.Make preliminary observations (start to formulate an hypothesis)
3.Make predictions from hypothesis that can easily be tested empirically
4.Indentify variables that need to be measured; define problem ie cat.of beh: operational/ostensive, choose appropriate research design
5.Choose suitable research environment
6.Collect sufficient date and make sure you have enough subjects in order to validate and invalidate your hypothesis
7.Use the appropriae statistical data analysis (exploratory or confirmatory data anaylsis, then back to step 1  Hypothesis  characteristics

1. asking questions
2. hypotheticodeductive scienc (experiemental psych.)
3.tentative explanation oftern includes a statement about the relp. between two or more variables
4. should be testable  Steps in developing theories

1. Defining the scope of the theory
2. Reviewing the literature
3. Formulating the theory
4. Establishing predictive validity
5. Testing the theory empirically  What are the steps in research?

1.Ask a question
2.Make preliminary observations (start to formulate an hypothesis)
3.Make predictions from hypothesis that can easily be tested empirically
4.Indentify variables that need to be measured; define problem ie cat.of beh: operational/ostensive, choose appropriate research design
5.Choose suitable research environment
6.Collect sufficient data and make sure you have enough subjects in order to validate and invalidate your hypothesis
7.Use the appropriae statistical data analysis (exploratory or confirmatory data anaylsis, then back to step 1  What is the (main) difference between deductive and inductive reasoning?

DeductiveTest theories
Inductivecreates theories  Why use signal detection theory?

1. originally used so that we could learn why people make different decisions based on the same information. (i.e radar)
2. **able to deal with uncertaincy
3. noise is oftern the cause of the uncertaincy
1. yes+Simulus presenthit
2. yes+Nostimulus  false alarm
3. no+Stimulus miss
4. no noStimulus present  correct rejection
5.d' discrimination, bbeta  Discrimination d'
 the recognition that it is between stimulus one or stimulus two (ie. Gadbois trying to figure out the difference between a Coyote and Wolfe)
 signal
 the stimulus, object, target
 Noise
 (ie flicker paradigm) the uncertaincey factor, the inferrence (intrinsic and extrinsic)

Response
Responsebias 
 the action or decision
 the basis of the action or decision made  Global Accuracy
 subjects is right with "hit" and "CR"
 What type of reasearch design is used most often in Pharmacology?
 Within subjects design. If you are introducting a new dose you must wean people off first then introduce new dose. Better than between because you can test effects on one individual, we all metabolize drugs differently.
 How is "sensitivity" lost?
 occurs during changs in experimentation. use behavioural tests which are most sensitive ie. the fins and gills of fish change color, posture due to disorientation.
 What is specifity?

Problems finding out which effects ie GABA or something else, produce what behaviour.
ex. if you give fish either GABA or Cora antagonist you can determine whether their behaviour is specific to the antagonist  Accuracy is a function of systematic error or bias. How can error or bias be prevented?

1. observer blinding
2.Subjects blinding or unconsious
3. Instrument calibration  What is random error?
 Fluctuations which are normal in experimentation and there is not much you can do to prevent them. The best thing u can do is to increase the number of subjects and/or observations. ex. subjects may be told not to eat before the experiment, but it is possible that they did eat before the experiment without you knowing.
 How can you maintain reliability or consistency in experimentation?

1. Testrest
2.Splithalf
3.Alternate(parallel) forms  How do you assess precision?

measures of varability
standard deviation (sd of repeated measures)
coefficient of variation X/C *100
measures of concordence (correlation coeficient)
other tools
  What is intra and Inter observer?

Intra=within  evaluating the consistency of the observer in measurement or proceedure: most often occur with longterm projects
Inter=between  making sure to do everything consistently when doing a task (not necessarily over time)  What are the types of validity?

face
content
Criterion
External(related to ecological)  What is an experimental science?

Astronomy is a science, that does not use experiments. It is largely based on observations (observational science)
 Experimental science is able to create controlled environments
very much about trying to explain the cause of a behaviour  Is Psychology an observational science?
 No in psychology we usually have a theory, then test theory, opposite of observational science.
 What are the problems with observational science?
 no controlled environments
 what is/are the characteristics of good science?

there is a constant loop
utilizes both observational and experimental science
 A good scientist is analytical and generalist  Ethology
 Science based mostly on observations
 Small n research

 When each subject(s)is in a seperate part of the experiment
*uses within subject design
 When making comparisons between subjects
* reliability is assessed by replication (eliminates bad data patterns caused by fautly subjects)
 convinent (easier to find a smaller number of subjects)  PDP
 using neural networks to test thoeries, explains how learning happens
 Baseline study
 AB design each subjects becomes their own control (no contorl group) ie. GSR (lie dector)
 Reversal Designs

AB <> AB
a treatment after administering it ie. treatmentreversaltreatment
pooling fallacy must be avoided
must be careful not to put too many variables on one subject  pooling fallacy
 The pooling fallacy: problems arising. when individuals contribute more than one observation to the data set.
 Things to consider when looking at baseline studies.

 consistent level of magnitude of treatment effects
 consistent trend (unidirectional trend)
Stability  consistent level or constistent trend. how stable is the trend over time. If trend changes this may suggest there is a carryover affect
search of temporal patterns: tiems seires ie seasonal data, prementral syndrom, SAD
Sequential analysis  Sequential analysis
 interested in very discrete events. Similar to temporal data. How often or in what patterns do these events occur? ie. couples who argue, who does what first? men first, women respond, must then break pattern
 What is a timeseries model and what is the disadvantage of the timeseries model?

A set of ordered observations on a quantitative characteristic of an individual or collective phenomenon taken at different points in time. Usually the observations are successive and equally spaced in time.
Disadvantage: it causes you to take in alot of date over a long period of time.  carryover effect
 A carryover effect is an effect that "carries over" from one experimental condition to another. Whenever subjects perform in more than one condition here is a possibility of carryover effects. For example, consider an experiment on the effect of rate of presentation on memory. Subjects are presented with a list of words and asked to recall as many words as they can. In one condition, the words are presented one word per second; in the other condition, the words are presented two words per second. The question is whether or not having performed in one condition affects performance in the second condition.
 Hawthorne effect
 The effecdt that being observed has on behaviour
 Descriptive statistics
 concerned with organizing, describing, quantifying, and summarizing a collection of actual observations
 Standard deviation
 provides a measure of the typical distance of scores from the mean.
 Variance
 is simply the square of the standard deviation and is a description of how much each score varies from teh mean.