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Acute pain
severe pain with a rapid onset and of short duration
a compulsive physiological need for a habit-forming drug
Advance directives
document defining the client’s end-of-life care decisions
pertaining to a substance, such as a medication, that reduces fever
the extent to which a dose of a drug reaches its site of action to produce an effect
Chronic pain
pain that persists beyond the period of healing, ceases to serve a protective function, degrades client function, and serves no adaptive purpose
Clean technique
– the purposeful prevention of the transmission of microorganisms by using procedures such as hand washing and disinfection of equipment to reduce the number of microorganisms
Condition of participation
a requirement that all clients be notified of their rights when entering a health care facility. Part of the Key Principles of Patient’s Right’s documentation.
Continuum of care
matching an individual’s ongoing needs with the appropriate level and type medical, psychological, health, or social care or services within an organization or across multiple organizations.
Cutaneous stimulation
stimulation of the skin
a term used to describe a group of symptoms related to a loss or impairment of mental powers. These demonstrated by symptoms of mental confusion, memory loss, disorientation, intellectual impairment, or similar problems.
Discharge planning
– the process by which the nurse plans for a client’s eventual release from a health care agency; the process begins on a client’s admission to the agency.
– a pain-reduction technique that diverts an individual’s attention away from the pain sensation
Drug tolerance
a decrease physiological response after repeated administration of a drug or a chemically related substance
a type of massage stroke that glides without manipulating deep muscles, smoothes and extends muscles, increases nutrient absorption, and improves lymphatic and venous circulation.
Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act
is a federal law intended to protect clients from being transferred against their wishes and thus defines how an appropriate facility-to-facility transfer is accomplished.
administration of local anesthetic by way of a catheter into the epidural space of the spinal column. Designed to produce anesthesia of the pelvic, abdominal, or genital areas.
pertaining to or characterized by fever or an elevation in body temperature.
effect of rubbing, of the resistance that a moving body meets from the surface on which it moves; a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement; in massage, technique in which deeper tissues are stroked or rubbed, usually through strong circular movements of the hand.
Gastrostomy feeding tube
Long, hollow, flexible tube inserted into the stomach through a stab wound in the upper left abdominal quadrant.
Guided imagery
Technique in which client focuses on an image, becoming less aware of pain.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
A federal law designed to protect the privacy of client health information
High-Fowler’s position
placement of a client in a semi-sitting position by raising the head of the bed more than 45to 60 degrees
Infusion pump
Device designed to deliver a measured amount of fluid over a period of time
Intake and output record
Measuring and recording of all liquid intake and output over a 24-hour period of time.
Referring to both the epidural and intrathecal routes of medication administration
Of or pertaining to a structure, process, or substance within a sheath, as within the spinal canal.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
A private, nongovernmental agency that establishes guidelines for the operation of health care facilities. The guidelines are the basis of accreditation, generally required for Medicare reimbursement.
A form of cutaneous stimulation that involves the application of touch and movement to muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
Nasal cannula
A device for delivering oxygen by way of two small , short tubes that are inserted into the nares
Nasogastric feeding tube
A small feeding tube that is passed through the nares into the stomach.
Analgesics that do not contain opioids
– Interventions used to prevent illness and promote health without the use of or in addition to the use of medications.
Pertaining to natural and synthetic chemicals that have opiumlike effects although they are not derived from opium.
Over-the-counter drug
Drug available to a consumer without a prescription.
Oxygen therapy
Administration of oxygen by any route to a client, to prevent or relieve hypoxia.
Pain intensity
The degree or extent of pain perceived by an individual.
Pain rating scales
Graphic or numeric representations that allow clients to quantify their pain experience.
Patient Self-Determination Act
Legislation that requires all Medicare and Medicaid recipient hospitals to provide clients with information an advance directives and their right to accept or reject medical treatment.
Patient’s Rights
A list of patient’s rights promulgated by the American Hospital Association; it offers some guidance and protection to clients by stating the responsibilities that a hospital and its staff have toward clients and families during hospitalization;it is not a legally binding document.
Technique that allows clients to self-administer small, contimuous doses of IV or subcutaneous opioids as they feel the need.
A massage technique in which the skin is gently lifted and squeezed.
Pharmacological agents
Oral, parenteral, or topical substances used to alleviate symptoms and treat or control illness.
Physical dependence
A physiological state in which abrupt cessation of a drug results in a withdrawal syndrome.
Erection of hair due to the action of the erectors pilorum muscles, the smooth attached to the hair follicles; commonly referred to as goose bumps.
Preemptive analgesia
A method of preventing pain while reducing opioid use.
Abbreviation for pro re nata, a Latin phrase meaning “as needed.” The times of administration are determined by the needs of the client.
Exhibition of drug-seeking behaviors through the true driving factor is pain relief not physical addiction.
A cognitive strategy that provides mental and physical pain relief or reduces pain.
Supporting the abdominal area to reduce pain caused by coughing or sneezing after surgery.
Transtracheal Oxygen catheter
administering oxygen to a client by establishing a low-flow catheter route directly in the trachea

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