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A.P. US History Chapter 36


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Herbert Hoover:
promised “A chicken in every pot”: if tariff repealed grass would grow “in the streets of a hundred cities”
Democratic, Governor of NY, a fifth cousin of Theodore Roosevelt, graduated from Harvard, FDR was suave and conciliatory, an arrogant “lightweight”
Eleanor Roosevelt
niece of Theodore Roosevelt, overcame the misery of an unhappy childhood, most active First Lady
“Brain Trust”
small group of reform-minded intellectuals, predominantly youngish college professors
Al Smith
sneered on the New Deal programs as “alphabet soup”
March 6-10, 1933
banking holiday, as a prelude to opening the banks on a sounder basis
New Deal
relief, recovery, and reform
Emergency Banking Relief Act, 1933
invested the president with power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to reopen solvent banks
“Fireside chats”:
FDR using the radio to deliver some of his speeches
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act:
provided for the Federal Deposit Insuranace Corporation, which insured individual deposits up to $5,000
“Managed currency”
goal of this was inflation, which FDR believed would relieve debtors’ burdens and stimulate new production
Civilian Conservation Corps
proved to be perhaps the most popular of all the New Deal. provided employment in fresh-air government camps for about 3 million uniformed young men
Federal Emergency Relief Act
chief aim was immediate relief rather than long-range recovery
Agricultural Adjustment Act
made available many millions of dollars to help farmers meet their mortgages
Home Owners’ Loan Corporation
designed to refinance mortgages on nonfarm homes, ultimately assisted about a million badly pinched households
Civil Works Administration
designed to provide purely temporary jobs during the cruel winter emergency, it served a useful purpose
Father Charles Coughlin
Catholic priest in Michigan, slogan was “Social Justice,” anti-New Deal harangues became so anti-Semitic, fascistic, and demagogic that he was silenced in 1942 by his ecclesiastical superiors
Huey P. Long
“Kingfish” said to have more brass than a government mule, promised that every family was to receive $5,000 at the expense of the prosperous
Mary McLeod Bethune
founder of a college in Florida, became the highest ranking African-American in the Roosevelt administration when she was appointed director of the Office of Minority Affairs
Works Progress Administration
objective was employment on useful projects
National Recover Administration
designed to assist industry, labor and the unemployed, most complex and far-reaching effort by the New Dealers
Schechter. 1935
“sick chicken” decision, Congress could not “delegate legislative powers” to the executive
Frances Perkins
first woman cabinet member, secretary of labor under FDR
Harold L. Ickes
free-swinging former bull mooser, secretary of the interior “Honest Harold”
Agricultural adjustment Administration
was to establish “parity prices” for basic commodities
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936
the withdrawal of acreage from production was now achieved by paying farmers to plant soil-conserving crops
Second Agricultural Adjustment Act
more comprehensive, continued conservation payments eligible for parity payments
Dust Bowl
Rainless weather turned the topsoil to powder in Missouri, Texas, Kansas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma
John Steinbeck
wrote The Grapes of Wrath
Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act
made possible a suspension of mortgage foreclosures for five years, but it was voided the next year by the Supreme Court
Resettlement Adminstration
charged with the task of removing near-farmless farmers to better land
Indian Reorganization
encouraged tribes to establish local self-government and to preserve their native crafts and traditions
Federal Securities Act:
“Truth in Securities Act” required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds
Securities & Exchange Commission:
designed as a watchdog administrative agency
Tennessee Valley Authority
a result of the steadfast vision and unflagging zeal of Senator George W. Norris, determined to discover precisely how much the production and distribution of electricity cost
Federal Housing Authority
building industry was to be stimulated by small loans to householders, both for improving their dwellings and for completing new ones
Social Security Act
provided for federal-state unemployment insurance
Wagner Act
(National Neighbor Relation Act) real milestone! created a powerful new National Labor Relations Board for administrative purposes and reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively through representatives of its own choice
United Mine Workers
John L.Lewis was the Boss of this, prominent amongst the strikers. several times were called off the job by their chieftain
Fair Labor Standards Act
(Wages and Hours Bill), industries involved in interstate commerce were to set up minimum-wage and maximum-hour levels
Alfred M. Landon
Mildly Liberal Republican candidate for presidency, of the Sunflower State of Kansas, wealthy oilman, had balanced the budget of his state in an era of unbalanced budgets
Franklin “Deficit” Roosevelt, attacked as “that man” and “the New Dealocrat”. Roosevelt snapped back by calling them “economic royalists” who sought to “hide behind their flag and the Constitution”
American Liberty Party
formed by the Democrats to fight “socialistic” New Deal schemes, and they vented their reactionary spleen against “that man” Roosevelt, “the New Dealocrat.”
Twentieth Amendment:
swept away the post-election lame duck session of Congress and shortened by six weeks the awkward period before inauguration
“Court Packing”; “A switch in time saves nine.”:
classic witticism inspired by this ideological change
“Roosevelt recession,” 1937:
caused by Social Security taxes biting into payrolls, quick depression in 1937
John Maynard Keynes:
British economist, “Keynesianism” became the new economic orthodoxy and remained so for decades, planned deficit spending
Will Rogers:
Humorist, “poet lariat” of the era, remarked that if Roosevelt were to burn down the Capitol, people would say, “Well, we at least got a fire started, anyhow.”

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