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Ch.24 key terms

Terms

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Sam Gompers
Sam Gompers demanded a fairer share for labor. He simply wanted "more," and sought better wages, hours, and working conditions.
Mother Jones
Mary Harris "Mother Jones", agitated for the Knights in Illinois
Company towns
A corporation might own the "company town", with is high-priced grocery stores and "easy" credit.
National Labor union
The National Labor Union, formed in 1866, represented a giant boot stride by workers and attracted an impressive total of 600,000 members, but it only lasted six years; however, it excluded Chinese and didn't really try to get Blacks and women to join; It worked for the arbitration of industrial disputes and the eight-hour workday, and won the latter for government workers, but the depression of 1873 knocked it out.
Terence Powderly
He became the Grand Master Workman of the Knights in 1879. He denounced "wage-slavery", and dedicated the Knights to achieving the "cooperative commonwealth".
Effect of Civil War on unions
The Civil War put a premium on labor, which helped labor unions grow.
Colored National Labor Unions
Black workers organized their own Colored National Labor Unions as an adjunct, but never could work w/ the National Labor Union because they supported the Republican party and persisted racism of white unionists.
American Federation of Labor
In 1886, Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor; consisted of an association of self-governing national unions, each of which kept its independence, with the AF of L unifying overall strategy.
Labor Day
By 1900, the public was starting to concede the rights of workers and beginning to give them some or most of what they wanted. In 1894, Labor Day was made a legal holiday.
Knights of Labor
A new organization, the Knights of Labor, was begun in 1869 and continued secretly until 1881. This organization was similar to the National Labor Union; It only barred liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers, and they campaigned for economic and social reform.; Led by Terence V. Powderly, the Knights won a number of strikes for the eight-hour day, and when they staged a successful strike against Jay Gould's Wabash Railroad in 1885, membership mushroomed to ¾ of a million workers.
Haymarket Square
In Chicago, home to about 80,000 Knights and a few hundred anarchists that advocated a violent overthrow of the American government, tensions had been building, and on May 4, 1886, Chicago police were advancing on a meeting that had been called to protest brutalities by authorities when a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing or injuring several dozen people. This was called the Haymarket Square Bombing.

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