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Psychology Prep Guides 5-9


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what is the purpose of sensory adaptation?
it diminishes the sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
why is transduction so important?
transduction is important because it converts our sensations into a message that our brain can interpret
what will likely result if an individual experience a detached retina?
transduction will not occur and they will only see black
what is a negative afterimage? give an example.
the after effect of staring at yellow, green, and black for too long. when you look away, you see the other colors; red where green should be, blue for yellow and white for black. stare at a green, yellow and black american flag until your eyes tire. then star at a white wall and you will the flag but with the opposite colors
what is the two-point threshold and who discovered it?
when a person touches another person in one place and then in another not far and the person thinks they touched them in the same spot.

Max Von Frey

describe how gate-control theory explains both our perceptions of pain an dhow psychological factors (cognitive and emotional) affect this perception.
the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. the "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
what is the cocktail party phenomenon and why is it important in relation to perception?
when you focus on info that is personal
what is inattentional blindness? give an example.
attention is shifted from one object to another and we fail to notice changes in objects not receiving direct attention

there was a car accident and you are so focused on if the people involved are okay that you dont notice someone came behind you and stole your wallet

is it possible to process more than one stimulus at a time? why or why not?
yes because a person can hear the oven go off while smelling that the food is delicious
top down processing
info processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
how does the brain perceive motion?
by comparing the movement of images across the retina to reference points that it assumes to be stable
how do the three components of motivation work together to influence behavior?
activation stage

persistence- continual effort

intensity- focused energy

intrinsic motivation
the desire to perform a behavior effectively and for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
the desire to behave in certain ways to receive external rewards or avoid threated punishment
drive reduction theory
must be a need
arousal theory
mental stimulation
maslows hierarchy of needs
beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. once our lower-level needs are met, we are prompted to satisfy our higher-level needs.
three components of emotion
physical, cognitive, bahavior
james-lange theory
stimulus, physical, emotion

no cognitive thought

fight or flight

cannon-bard theory
physical and emotion at the same time

correlated but not cause and effect

two-factor theory (Schachter-Singer theory)
physical, cognitive, explanation of emotion
lazarus theory
cognitive, trigger stimulus, emotion, physical
basic emotions (6 emotions)
fear, anger, disgust, sadness, joy, surprise
facial-feedback hypothesis
make a certain facial feature, you feel the emotion through hormones released through experiences
who is B.F. Skinner and why is his work important to the field of psychology?
came up with the operant conditioning and we need to know the behavior

helped about learning and how the environment controls the behavior

manipulated behaviors using the environment

right motivator and inforcer

classical conditioning
unaware about learning


a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

higher order conditioning
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second conditioned stimulus
taught a dog to associate food with a tone
always happens
spontaneous recovering
after 20 minutes, there will not be a recovering in classical conditioning
stimulus leads to....
tendency to respond; looking at a phone when it rings even though you know that it is not your ring tone
not looking at your phone when you hear a ring tone because you cognitively know it is not your ring tone
which aspect of classical conditioning process is most important?
the pairing of conditioned with the unconditioned stimulus
do you think watson could have just as easily conditioned a fear response to a flower or shoelace?

element of motivation

hwo is the knowledge of conditioned taste aversion useful in treating cancer patients?
food + nausea = taste aversion

food + ice cream + nausea = taste aversion

cancer patients state to dislike the ice cream instead of the food they ate before coming in for treatment

Skinner says that....
we need to find the motivation behind the person
scientifically proven....
that punishment does not work
negative reinforcement
give something to remove an adverse stimuli

ex: take medicine to get ride of a headache

fixed- ratio schedule
after a # of responses reinforce by a reward
variable-ratio schedule
reinforcing a behavior after a various # of responses

the best schedule to avoid extinction

fixed-interval schedule
behavior reinforced through a set time frame
variable-interval schedule
behavior reinforced through a varied time frame
skinner box
a rat presses a bar for a food reward

manipulated rats behavior through the environment

shaping the behavior

the puzzle box (Thorndike)
used a fish reward to entice the cat to find their way out of a puzzle box through a series of maneuvers

accidental learning

on test
describe what perspective we are coming from
positive punishment
adding a negative stimulus
autokinetic illusion
an unmoving light in a dark room appears to move

your eyes are moving, not teh light

in the dark, the brain has no stable reference point to determine what is moving

banduras bobo doll study
we learn through observation

also learning aggression through observation and take it to the next level

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
follow up study on bandura
videotaped the study and found that children acted it out to the next level


does not see or learn consequences

can learn behavior though watching television

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
difference threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. we experience difference threshold as just noticeable difference
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
opponent-process theory
the theory that opposin retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimension although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance
unconditioned response (UR)
the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US) such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned stimulus (US)
a stimulus that unconditionally, naturally and automatically, triggers a response
conditioned response (CR)
the learned response to a previously neutral, but not conditioned, stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
extinction definition
the diminishing of an conditioned response
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant behavior
behavior that operates on teh environment, producing consequences
operant chamber (skinners box)
a chamber containing a bar or key that n animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals rate of bar pressing or key pecking
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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