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Biol 314


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Consumes the tissues or body fluids of its host
parasite that lives inside its host
Parasite that lives on the outer body surface of its host
What is a parasitic life style so extremely common?
Because parasites are specialized for only one type of survival.
Advantages to endoparasitism
Well protected from natural predators
Advantages to ectoparasitism
Easy dispersal of offspring
Disadvantages to ectoparasitism
More exposed to natural enemies
Immune response - host covers parasite or parasite eggs with capsules that kill them
The evolution of two interacting species, each in response to selection imposed by the other
Cause of downfall of American chestnut
fungal pathogen
Threshold Density
When population goes above threshold, disease susceptibility increases
Mycorrhizae - What role do they play in communities?
Fungi on roots - fungi get carbohydrates from the roots, and the plants benefit because it enhances water uptake
Identity of species does matter - flower and moth with long tongue
"Nurse plant" phenomenon
Types of plants that germinate under other plants
Why might positive interactions be more common in stressful environments?
Less competition
Trophic mutualism
A mutualist receives energy or nutrients from its partner
Habitat mutualism
one partner provides the other with a shelter
Service mutualism
interactions in which one partner performs an ecological service for the other
Beltian bodies
modified leaflet tips which are high in protein and fat - queen ants feed her larvae with nectar from these bodies
groups of interacting species that occur together at the same place and time
Things that share the same resource
Functional group
Things that feed in a similar way
number of species in a community
Combined species richness and evenness (evenness = abundance)
Rank abundance curve
Drastic curve - temperate forest

Leveled off curve - tropical rainforest

Accumulation Curves
Sloped line is more diverse that the curve
Trophic cascade
change in the rate of consumption, results in a series of changes in species abundance at lower trophic levels
Direct interactions
occur between two species
Indirect interactions
occur when the relationship between two species is mediated by a third species
foundation species
species that has large, community-wide effects by virtue of its size or abundance
ecosystem engineers
dominant species that influences its community by creating a physical habitat for itself and other species
"Context Dependency"
species interactions can change under different environmental conditions - aphids and ants
Primary succession
colonization of habitats that are devoid of life
Secondary succession
the reestablishment of a community in which most organisms have been destroyed
a stable end point that experiences little change
Facilitation model
early species modify the environment in ways that benefit later species
Tolerance Model
early species modify the environment in neutral ways
Inhibition Model
early species modify the environment in negative ways
What is meant by the idea that the tropics are both a cradle and a museum for species diversity?
cradle - majority of extant taxa originated there

museum - if extinction rates are low, species that diversify there will tend to stay there

Resource ratio hypothesis
species coexist by using resources in different proportions
nonequilibrium theories
disturbance, stess, and predation can mediate resource availability thus affecting species interactions and coexistence
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
species diversity should be highest at intermediate levels of disturbance
lottery model
resources in a community made available by disturbance are captured at random by recruits from a larger pool of potential colonists
Gross primary production
total amount of carbon fixed by autotrophs in an ecosystem
Net primary production
GPP - respiration
3 factors that might affect the number of trophic levels in an ecosystem



converts ammonia to nitrate under aerobic conditions
converts nitrate to nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide under anoxic conditions
nutrient cycle
nutrients undergo biological, chemical, and physical transformations as they are taken up by organisms and released through decomposition, ultimately returning to their original inorganic form over time
nutrient spiral in aquatic ecosystems
nutrients in rivers and streams are cycled repeatedly as the water flows downstream
Why is conservation biology called a value-based discipline?
The science is not free of human values, and it inevitably takes place within a larger social context
"Background extinction rate"
estimate extinction rates from fossil records
"taxonomic homogenization"
areas of the world are becoming more similar due to invasive species
population viability analysis
counting approach to see future status of populations in a particular species
flagship species
charismatic species look to be saved by the public
umbrella species
species that people too to save because it will protect other species
landscape ecology
a sub-discipline of ecology that emphasizes the causes and consequences of spatial variation across a range of scales
edge effects
the diverse biotic and abiotic changes that are associated with such a boundary

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