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ch. 37


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stalin in china
got some Japanese islands lost in Manchurian railroads and seaports.would be used to aid the Chinese Communists establish a foothold
Point Four
plan to lend $$ and technology to underdeveloped countries to fight communism
Jiang Jieshi
led the nationalists, but with only sporadic US help
Sen. Joseph McCarthy
served on the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. went after communists. Robert Kennedy worked for him.notorious for accusing with little evidence.
MacArthur vs. Truman
MacArthur wanted retaliation and increased US action.US leaders did not want to engage China; concentrate on USSR.MacArthur took his position public and Truman fired him; MAcArthur returned to the US as a hero, Truman viewed as giving in to the commiesJuly 1951 a truce declared, but no treaty ever signed
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization
originally 5 European countries form mutual defense treaty.historic alliance for the US to defend Europe.grew to 14 with Greece and Turkey in 1952, W. Germany joined in 1955
The Yalta Conference
at the last conference of the "Big Three," Stalin got just about everything he wanted and the Cold War was defined for the next 40 years.what would happen to Europe after the war?when will the USSR get into the war against Japan?how about a new League of nations?
Selective Service System 1948
peacetime draft
Douglas MacArthur
headed the reconstruction of Japan.became a democratic country, committed to pacifism. boosted jap's economy
The Arms Race
gets the atomic bomb (they had 3 spies on the US atomic bomb project).1952 - US detonates the H-bomb (Hydrogen Bomb), much more powerful than the Hiroshima bomb.1953 - USSR detonates their own H-bomb
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
to regulate international currency rates
Dr. Benjamin Spock
told parents how to raise their kids: The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care
Employment Act
made it gov't policy to promote employment; created the Council of Economic Advisors for the president
Fair Deal" Program as domestic policy
housing, employment,farm supports, extension of Social Security (sounds like the New Deal) - most of it defeated in the Republican Congress (allied with Southern Democrats
GI Bill of Rights
gave soldiers $$ for school, vo-tech; allowed the Veterans' Administration to guarantee vets' home loans
Truman Doctrine
announced a policy to help free people fight against armed minorities (that meant communist rebels); this would form the basis for US intervention around the world until 1991
The Smith Act prosecutions
NY convicted 11 communists under this Act in 1949, upheld by the Supreme Court
Kennan's "Containment Doctrine
advised that USSR's expansionism should be contained by the US
The Loyalty Program
Truman was tired of the Soviets and worried about Communists in the USThe Loyalty Review Board investigated millions of federal workers (3000 were fired or resigned)loyalty oaths became popular around the country
Mao Zedong
led the communists and had sponsors in the USSR in civil war in china
World Bank
to promote development of war-torn areas
Election of 1948
repub-Thomas E. Dewey, NY governor democ. - truman, Strom -Henry Wallace. Truman victory
The Berlin Airlift
Stalin cut off land access to Berlin as a challenge to the West.US heads a massive 9-month airlift to bring food, clothes, etc. to the citizens of West Berlin. stalin backs down
National Security Act
created the cabinet-level Department of Defense.heads of the armed forces now made into the Joint Chiefs of Staff.created the National Security Council to advise the presidentcreated the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to spy on the world and assassinate heads of countries we didn't like
Taft-Hartley Act
passed by the new Republican Congress over Truman's veto outlawed "closed shops" and made unions liable for damages in inter-union disputes
Allied trials of the Nazis
occurred in Nuremberg (home of the Nazi Party).12 put to death, others committed suicide beforehand
The Korean War
only shooting between US and a major communist power (China) in the entire Cold War. US-north USSR - south
House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) - Nixon v. Hiss
Rep. Richard Nixon (future president) went after Alger Hiss (a New Deal Democrat and Soviet spy)Hiss denied he was a Communist, but another discovered agent (Whittaker Chambers) ratted him out.By the time the truth was discovered, the statute of limitations had run out on prosecution for espionage, so he was convicted for lying under oaththe recently-released Soviet records in the Venona Project (a US-British project to intercept Soviet communications) are generally considered to have settled the matter
the 15-state crescent region from Virginia to California increased in population at twice the rate of the North
Marshall plan
named for Secretary of State George C. Marshall - to provide billions in aid to countries devastated by the war as long as they agreed to cooperate (otherwise communists might persuade the citizens to go to the dark side)
stalins broken promises at yalta
Poland would have free elections - not .USSR would join the war in the Pacific - after the US dropped the bomb.Bulgaria and Romania will have free elections - yeah, right
Marshall plan effects
most of Europe took advantage of it and recovered (you're welcome, France.USSR refused offer of aid and did not allow any of its new "satellite" countries (allegedly independent, but subject to the control of Stalin, e.g.,Hungary, Poland
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
leaked atomic secrets to the Soviets in the 1940s.executed in 1953 (only people executed for spying in peacetime)
white flight
leaving the cities for the suburbs inner cities would become poorer and darker, blacks from the South continued to move to cities, businesses also started to move out
North Korean Invasion
North Korean Invasion United Nations condemns the invasion and asks members to "render assistance" - called a "police action"Truman sends US troops into combat without consulting Congress Gen. Douglas MacArthur's troops in Japan join the fight; he takes orders from the US, not the UN
5 permanent members of Security Council
US, GB, France, China, USSR

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