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Exam Study Guide 2 part 2

Terms

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Lay Investiture
In the feudal system investiture was the ceremonial transfer of a fief by an overlord to a vassal.
National states
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Dharma
conformity to religious law, custom, duty, or one's own quality or character
Humanism
a variety of ethical theory and practice that emphasizes reason, scientific inquiry, and human fulfillment in the natural world and often rejects the importance of belief in God.
Pluralism
A condition in which numerous distinct ethnic, religious, or cultural groups are present and tolerated within a society.
Hundred Years War
the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
Noble Eightfold Path
the eight pursuits of one seeking enlightenment, comprising right understanding, motives, speech, action, means of livelihood, effort, intellectual activity, and contemplation.
Aryanism
The doctrines of Arius, denying that Jesus was of the same substance as God and holding instead that he was only the highest of created beings, viewed as heretical by most Christian churches.
Sikhism
monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by the guru Nanak. Sikhism rejects caste distinctions, idolatry, and asceticism and is characterized by belief in a cycle of reincarnation from which humans can free themselves by living righteous lives as active members of society.
Vedism
the form of Hinduism that revolves primarily around the mythic version and ritual ideologies in the Vedas
Syncretism
the attempted reconciliation or union of different or opposing principles, practices, or parties, as in philosophy or religion.
Legalism
the doctrine that salvation is gained through good works, the judging of conduct in terms of adherence to precise laws.
Shi'ites
A member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali and his descendants as the legitimate successors to Muhammad and rejects the first three caliphs.
Secularism
secular spirit or tendency, esp. a system of political or social philosophy that rejects all forms of religious faith and worship.
Janissaries
an elite troop in the Ottoman army; consisted of Christian boys from the Balkans
Manorialism
political, economic, and social system by which the peasants of medieval Europe were rendered dependent on their land and on their lord. Its basic unit was the manor, a self-sufficient landed estate, or fief, that was under the control of a lord who enjoyed a variety of rights over it and the peasants attached to it by means of serfdom.
Brahmanism
The social and religious system of orthodox Hindus, especially of the Brahmins, based on a caste structure and various forms of pantheism.
Nationalism
the policy or doctrine of asserting the interests of one's own nation, viewed as separate from the interests of other nations or the common interests of all nations.
Five Pillars of Islam
the basic precepts of Islam, including belief in Allah and Muhammad the prophet, prayer, charity or almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage to Mecca
Beringia
a vast area between the Kolyma River in the Russian Far East to the Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories of Canada
Nirvana
a place or state characterized by freedom from or oblivion to pain, worry, and the external world.
Great Schism
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office.
Sunni
a member of one of the two great religious divisions of Islam, regarding the first four caliphs as legitimate successors of Muhammad and stressing the importance of Sunna as a basis for law.
Sanskrit
An ancient Indic language that is the language of Hinduism and the Vedas and is the classical literary language of India.
Sharia
The code of law based on the Qu'ran.
Ulama
Muslim scholars trained in Islam and Islamic law.
Hijra
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.
Jihad
a holy war undertaken as a sacred duty by Muslims.
Heresy
any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position
Shintoism
native religion of Japan, primarily a system of nature and ancestor worship
Conquest States
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Babylonian Captivity
the exile of the popes at Avignon, 1309-77.
Clovis Culture
The earliest Native American "culture" know to archeologists. It was largely based on hunting very large game
Feudalism
A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the holding of all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
Council of Constance
the council in 1414-1418 that succeeded in ending the Great Schism in the Roman Catholic Church
Renaissance
the activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world.
Buddhism
a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama) and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to halt the endless sequence of births and deaths to which one is otherwise subject.
Meritocracy
an elite group of people whose progress is based on ability and talent rather than on class privilege or wealth.
Parliament
the legislature of Great Britain, historically the assembly of the three estates, now composed of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal, forming together the House of Lords, and representatives of the counties, cities, boroughs, and universities, forming the House of Commons.
Four Noble Truths
doctrines of Buddha: all life is suffering, the cause of suffering is ignorant desire, this desire can be destroyed, the means to this is the Eightfold Path.
Vassal
(in the feudal system) a person granted the use of land, in return for rendering homage, fealty, and usually military service or its equivalent to a lord or other superior; feudal tenant.
State
the territory, or one of the territories, of a government.
Dynastic Cycle
new ruler: Unites China, founds a new dynasty, and gains the Mandate of Heaven.
Caliph
a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Muhammad.
Patron
a person who supports with money, gifts, efforts, or endorsement an artist, writer, museum, cause, charity, institution, special event, or the like: a patron of the arts
Caste System
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
Paleoindians
the ancient peoples of the Americas who were present at the end of the last Ice Age.
Black Death
An outbreak of bubonic plague that was pandemic throughout Europe and much of Asia in the 14th century.
Sufis
popular form of Islam that amphasizes emotional unio with God and mystical powers.
Mahayana
the later of the two great schools of Buddhism, chiefly in China, Tibet, and Japan, characterized by eclecticism and a general belief in a common search for salvation, sometimes thought to be attainable through faith alone.
Mandate of Heaven
A theory of rule originated by the Zhou dynasty in China emphasizing the connection between imperial government's rectitude and its right to govern.
Three Field System
method of agricultural organization introduced in Europe in the Middle Ages and representing a decisive advance in production techniques. in the three-field system, however, only a third of the land lay fallow.
Crusades
often Crusade Any of the military expeditions undertaken by European Christians in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Karma
action, seen as bringing upon oneself inevitable results, good or bad, either in this life or in a reincarnation: in Hinduism one of the means of reaching Brahman
Confucianism
the system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Mercantilism
The theory and system of political economy prevailing in Europe after the decline of feudalism, based on national policies of accumulating bullion, establishing colonies and a merchant marine, and developing industry and mining to attain a favorable balance of trade.
Theravada (Hinayana)
A conservative branch of Buddhism that adheres to Pali scriptures and the nontheistic ideal of self-purification to nirvana
Benedictine Rule
The rules of conudct given to his monastic followers by the sixth century Christian St. Benedict.
Hinduism
A diverse body of religion, philosophy, and cultural practice native to and predominant in India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils.
Daoism
philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Hajj
the pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: the fifth of the Pillars of Islam.
Samurai
a member of the hereditary warrior class in feudal Japan.
Sati
- a Hindu practice whereby a widow immolates herself on the funeral pyre of her husband
Magna Carta
A list of rights and privileges that King John of England signed under pressure from English noblemen in 1215. It established the principles that the king could not levy taxes without consent of his legislature, or parliament, and that no free man in England could be deprived of liberty or property except through a trial or other legal process.

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