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Reason-based theistic worldview that acknowledges God, but basis this truth on reason. An 18th century Enlightenment religion emphasizing reason, not miracles; partly a reaction against Calvinism and religious superstition. Scottish philosopher David Hume, “Miracles violate laws of nature, laws of nature cannot be violated; therefore miracles cannot exist.” Created anti-supernatural bias and objectification of faith
Four Tenets of "evangelism"
Biblicist-Bible is sole authority in matters of faith/practice. Crucicentrist-Cross centered, Jesus’ death on the cross is the most part of the Bible/religion. Conversionist-What Jesus did requires us to respond, difference in one’s life. Activist-Responsibility of church to reach people, through missions/preaching/etc.
wesleyan quadrilateral
John Wesley’s (primary organizer of the Great Awakening) four points of Methodism. He stated that Christian Faith is: Revealed in Scripture (Holy Bible), Illuminated by Tradition (2,000 year history of Church), Vivified by Experience (personal journey w/Christ), and Confirmed by reason (rational thinking).
the five fundamentals
Developed by the conservative Christian movement (the fundamentalists). The movement and the five fundamentals were a response to the basic tenets of liberalism. The five fundamentals were: the bible is inerrant or free of error because it is the word of God. Virgin Birth really happened and Christ is the Son of God, not just a man that embodied good morals. They affirmed substitutionary atonement, the belief that Jesus died for our sins. Emphasized Christ’s physical resurrection. And Miracles are essential to the Christian religion, meaning they really do occur and they are an act of God.
A theory that a continual increase in the consumption of goods is sound economically. Comes from the McWorld way of thinking, a term coined by Benjamin Barber. Involves: Need (condition in which there is a deficiency of something), Want (A wish or desire for something; a craving), and Stuff (worthless objects; refuse, junk, as well as things of value).
jonathan edwards
Primary theologian and philosopher of the Revival. Reformed by the theology of Calvin and John Locke’s empirical approach. He believed true religion primarily rooted in the affections (not reason), wrote Treatise Concerning Religious Affections. Pastorate (pulpit-intellectual appeal to emotions, revival (1734) 300 Conversions) and Pen (Theology-wrote numerous works “freedom of the will”). Reframed Calvinist theology to Enlightened Ears, advanced American philosophy, and apologetic for spiritual revival and “Evangelical Movement”.
The study of the “Last Things”, the second advent of Christ, Millennial Kingdom (eschatos: last). One of the five characteristics of apocalyptic literature. Different approaches to Biblical Eschatology include Covenant (Unity between old and new testament) and Dispensational Theology (Sharp Distinction between old and new testament). Usually focused on death, judgment, heaven, and hell.
The great awakening
Religion in an age of reason, response to Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment. Rationalization of Christian worldview with a new stress upon spiritual revival in Christ and personal regeneration in Christ, resulting in a need to “experience” God. Joseph Tracy (1842)-Transdenominational, transatlantic phenomenon of the English-speaking world (New England and the Middle Colonies). Led to the Evangelical awakening and movement. Key figures included John Edwards, John Wesley, and George Whitefield.
higher criticism
The critical study of the methods and sources used by the Old and New Testaments’ authors. Basically it was a scientific method applied to biblical studies. The tools used by higher criticism were historical context, geography, culture, language, and literature. The goal of higher criticism was to interpret the bible free from doctrinal or confessional theology, study evidence of biblical texts, and determine its authenticity through science and reason.
Walter Rauschenbusch
Started the social gospel movement, Baptist minister and professor. Inspired by miracles of Jesus and Sermon on the Mount; Jesus feed hungry people, church should feed hungry people. Believed Kingdom of God will appear on earth and God calls Christians to establish the Kingdom. Started preaching in “Hell’s Kitchen” in NYC that church should get involved in society and wrote Christianity and the Social Crisis.
second vatican council
Pope John XXIII opens the Council on October 11, 1962. More than 2600 bishops and 400 Catholic theologians and experts. Non-catholic and lay observers were invited. The council issued 16 documents: 1. Dogmatic Constitution on the Church-The church is a “mystery”, 2. Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation-“The teaching office is not above the word of God, but serves it”, 3. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World-Church exists inside of world, 4. Decree on Ecumenism-Restoration of Christian unity.
azusa street revival
William J. Seymour Parham moved to Los Angeles and began preaching on Acts 2:4, that deals with speaking in tongues. On April 9, 1906 Ed Lee receives tongues and others follow, on April 12th receives tongues. Meetings soon outgrow home and they move to Azusa Street in an African Methodist Building. Phenomena there included tongues, trances, “slain in the spirit”, people jumping and dancing. By September 1906, 13,000 receive tongues. This marks the beginning of the Pentecostal movement.

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