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ASB 222 Exam numero 2


undefined, object
copy deck
any object made or modified by a human; an object recovered by some archaeological endeavor, which may have a cultural interest
Textual Evidence
any form of symbolic communication, reading between the lines
datum point
a point in which to reference another point (prime meridian, equator)
Survey [regions]
usually regional, view large area, obtain lots of course data
Excavation [Sites]
site specific, generate fine grain data
most commonly fall under two categories, normally the remains of plants or animals, natural environments, what people hunt or farm; previously unhanded by humans
non-movable aspect of material culture (fire, architecture, road)
small area that is usually excavated (town)
large area that contains sites, usually surveyed (American Southwest)
sampling randomly choosing sample locations
sampling choosing sample locations based on intuition
a technique used to take advantage of consistencies in stratigraphy between parts of a site or different sites, and objects or strata with a known relative chronology
Amarna Letters
an archive of correspondence on clay tablets, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom. They weren't written in Egyptian but were written in Akkadian. The letters were found in Upper Egypt at Amarna, the modern name for the Egyptian capital of Akhetaten, founded by pharaoh Akhenaten
Rosetta Stone
an Ancient Egyptian artifact which was instrumental in advancing modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. The stone is a Ptolemaic era stele with carved text made up of three translations of a single passage: two in Egyptian language scripts (hieroglyphic and Demotic) and one in classical Greek
Primary and Secondary context
primary: left in original location and not moved, provides more information about behaviors secondary: moved to a different location before found, provides less clues to behaviors
the earliest known writing system in the world.[1] Cuneiform writing emerged in the Sumerian civilization of southern Iraq around the 34th century BC[2] during the middle Uruk period, beginning as a pictographic system of writing
parsimonious explanation
most practical/simple explanation that utilizes the largest amount of evidence; occam's razor
[assoc. w/ Cuvier] the idea that Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope.
Principle of Uniformitarianism
[assoc. w/ Lyell/Hutton] - all processes we see in universe around us have also held true in the past, and will always hold true in the future
Law of Asociation
two bits of material evidence, found in the same location, closely associated in time
Principle of Superposition
Layers on the bottom are older than layers on the top. Like a cake.
Relative Dating
provides date range - event A happened before event B. (applies law of association, principle of superposition, and seriation)
Absolute dating
obtain date and numerical value
Stylistic seriation
arranging pots in accordance with style and then relates this to time - style changes with time
Frequency Seriation
the frequency of style change in orderly fashion
Battleship Curves
graphical view of frequency seriation to show how the frequency of styles changes over time
the study of stratified sediments
radiocarbon dating
type of radiometric dating that uses c14 to determine age of artifact
the amount of time it takes for half of a radioactive substance to decay
"before present"
tree ring dating
Potassium Argon Dating
measurement of the product of radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium `
Cambridge Half-Life
c14 is reduced by 50% after 5730 yrs + or - 30 yrs, a more accurate figure of 5730±40 years
Accelerator Mass-Spectroscopy
used to calculate the age of an element or artifact in Carbon-14 dating
Radiocarbon calibration
use of dendochronology to calibrate radio carbon dating
Radioactive Decay
the rate of time it takes for something to be not radioactive anymore
Geologic Clock
An ordered, internally consistent, internationally recognized sequence of time intervals, each distinct in its own history and record of life on Earth, including the assignment of absolute time in years to each geologic period. The geologic time scale has a relative scale, consisting of named intervals of geologic history arranged in historical sequence; and a numerical (or absolute) time scale, providing absolute ages for the boundaries of these intervals
nuclear reaction in which a nucleus of a radioactive atom splits into smaller, lighter atoms.
C-14 range in years
30,000 years- items include bone, wood, soil, plants antlers, blood, anything that was once living
A radioactive isotope of carbon, especially carbon 14. The "A.D.D isotope"
stamp seal generally with name/hieroglyphics. Associated w/ Egyptians. Scarabs can be engraved to create them and worn as royal seal rings.
Egyptian Hieroglyphics
"picture writing" Young discovered that names were put in cartouches and Champollion discovered that heiroglyphics were phonetic
sediment layer that separates one quadrant from the next during an archaeological dig
Aerial photography - Reconnaissance Survey
Not used to find sites- but crucial to recording and monitoring changes in sites over time
used to date buried objects that were heated in the past
location in a 3 dimensional space
Cultural Resource Management (CRM)
Archaeology used to make sure sites for new roads and buildings are not culturally significant.
Royal Tombs of Ur
Queen Puabi and King Abargi. Buried with nearly 40 people in each tomb. Death pits.
Carter Ranch
America- a pueblo excavated by Longacre where large amounts of pottery were found and Long. Tried to decipher the reasons and way pottery was made.
capital city of Eqypt before Amarna
France; Gravels Boucher De Perthes concluded that animal bones were those of extinct animals because these animals did not resemble the animals currently living in Abbeville; Abbeville gravels (non-active old river bed)
Egypt After Amenophis changes his name to Akhenten he promotes his political agenda and moves the royal capital from Memphis to Amarna.
Susa City
Iran where the code of Hammurabi was found(plundered)
Diospolis Parva
Egypt, Sir Flinders Petrie, stylistic seriation
Deir al-Bahri
Egypt 1450 BC Near the Valley of the Kings; where Tut Mosis II and III were king
Iraq Woolley, where the Death Pits are with Queen Puabi and King Abargi. Buried with their servants and armies (a portion of the army)
William Longacre
study of pottery at Carter Ranch, Hopi traditions, and Kalinga on the island of Luzon
Sir Flinders Petrie
went to Egypt; his position was to investigate Cairo; stylistic seriation, studied pots in a vast cemetery in Diospolis Parva, dates to dynastic period (4000-3000 BC)
Leonard Woolley
Ur, knew Agatha Christie and her husband, from England- discovered royals from Sumer.
Boucher de Perthes
Abbeville Gravels(dried river site), discovered animals remains that had never been seen, likely to be extinct, and made the connection that humans were living longer than 6000 yrs.
King A-Bar-G
king of Ur, buried underneath the tomb of Queen Puabi. Was found to be looted.
Queen Puabi
Tomb found by Woolley at cemetery in Ur. Cylinder seals used to identify her.
Howard Carter
King Tut's tomb. Gridded Valley of the Kings, but couldn't find any unlooted tombs until he came up with the idea that a large tomb's excavation might have buried a nearby tomb. Ramses's tomb's skree did infact bury Tut's tomb.
James Deats
historical archaeologist; frequency seriation, case study in colonial america of tomb styles over time
ruler of Egypt that was delegitimized by Tutmoses III by chiseling off her Cartouches
Tomb found in Valley of the Kings, in a pile of debris leftover from the excavation of the tomb of Ramses VI.
Martin Kamen/Sam Ruben
discovered C-14 at Berkeley in 1940's
Willard Libby
Nobel Prize Winner for carbon-14 dating
Discovered that Egyptian hieroglyphics were phonetic
A.E. Douglass
devised dendrochronology technique
James Ussher
Arch Bishop of Ireland that came up with a date for the arrival of Adam and Eve (4004 BC) based on old testament1
Jacques Cuvier
he came up with Catastrophism, was torn between religion and science
Charles Lyell
interested in how land forms change over time, came to conclusion that they take a very long time, his argument was the principle of uniformitarianism
what happens in the past can happen in th future
ruler of Babylonia 1700 BC
Shamash Sun god of Babylonia
his duty was to administer law. that Hammurabi is said to have recieved the code of Hammurabi. Referenced in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
possible "Hebrews" lived out in rural area of Canaan and were mentioned in the Amarna Letters.
moved capital from Memphis to Amarna= Amarna letters
Mes-Kalam- Dug
Woolley uncovered tomb, found gold helmet and other lavish things
calendrical dating
a form of absolute dating that comes from written evidence (i.e. Theatre dedication written on plaque)
a leader's attempt to legitimize their rule and show their authority. i.e. Code of Hammurabi
someone attempting to slander or erase the name of a former leader (Tutmosis III destroys Hatshepsut's cartouches)
Political Relations
textual evidence shown in the Amarna Letters
Ethnic Relations
textual evidence depicted with the Apiru
Terminus ante quem/ post quem
point before which, point after which
Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates
Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates: Umayyad- AD661-750, second of four Islamic caliphates, from Mecca but capital was Demascus, established after the death of Muhammad, overthrown by Abbasid caliphate. Abbasid- AD 750-1258, the third Islamic caliphate, shifted capital from Huran to Baghdad, went into decline from the Turkish army.
holy book of the Muslim faith, the word means “recitation”. Many believers, as well as Mohammad himself, were illiterate and learned all teachings orally. Prophet Mohammad received the revelation of the Qur’an in AD 610, began preaching in 612. It consists of 114 chapters, or “suhras”, ordered by length, not chronologically.
Torah: most holy of the sacred writings in Judaism. Formed by the first 5 books of the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
Sunni, shia islam
Sunni, Shia Islam: share the same Islamic belief, however they have political differences. Shia believe Ali should follow Muhammad, the position should stay in the family. Sunni believe that people capable of doing the job should have the chance to also.
1. Shahada: Declaration of faith: “no god but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet/messenger”
2. Salat: Prayer 5x a day facing the Kaabah in Meca: down, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, night.
3. Zakat: At the end of Ramadan, 2.5% of wealth. Alms to the poor
4. Sawm: Fasting during Ramadan for an entire month (lunar calendar). No food in daylight hours.
5. Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca. At least once in your lifetime.
Egyptian Predynastic Period
Egyptian Predynastic Period: after 3500BC was the end of predynastic , cities aren\'t every important, writing here, pre-civilization
Purposeful sampling
Purposeful Sampling: choosing sample locations based on prior experience/knowledge.
Probability Sampling
Probability Sampling: probability or chance sampling to avoid bias based on prior experience or knowledge.
Babylonian: over run by Elamites from capital Susa (modern Iran).
Akkadian: semetic language, related to Hebrew, 2 dialogues, North= Syrian Akkadian. South= Babylonia Akkadian.
Coptic: Egyptian Language is now called the Coptic language and is the direct descendent of the ancient language written in Hieroglyphic.
Ziggurat: were massive pyramidal temples built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels.
Narmer Palette
Narmer Palette: oversized example of cosmetic palette, slab of slate. Hyeroglyphics that show a chapter of Ancient Egyptian history: the unification of upper and lower Egypt by King Narmer (also known as Menes), or King Catfish.
Diaspora: An expulsion of people from their homeland. The Jewish Diaspora started in 586 BC, defined as a throwing of seeds to the wind.
Semitic: a group of languages, including Akkadian, Arabic, and Hebrew.
Secondary Products Revolution
Secondary Products Revolution: Southern Levant, an agricultural revelation in Bronze Age, development of market products you can take and trade, can be stored for a long period of time, market them. Ex: Wool, get markets up and going, happened around 300BC. Helped rapid population growth similar to growth of Mexico City today.
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls: an important literary source. First set comes from Qumran and contains seven leather scrolls that are all biblical and take place around 250 B.C. The second set contained 80,000 fragments that made up 8,000 documents. Some were biblical while others were not.
Aramaic: A language related to Hebrew, spoken by the people in the fertile crescent.
Bronze Age
Bronze Age: 3500-1200B.C., marked by the appearance of towns and the Canaanites in the Southern Levant.
Manual of Discipline
Manual of Discipline: the Manual of Discipline, Letter to Jerusalem and the War Scroll were Extra-Biblical texts: set of guidelines for living communally.
Iron Age
1200-586B.C., rise of Israelite Kingdoms, kings have regional authority (King David). Most important because first kingdoms, centralized authority, and appearance of new players in archaeological game. Hebrew becomes popular. Cannanites, Isrealites, and Phristies. 586 BC- Israelites are ended and moved to Mesopotamia.
Letter to Jerusalem
: found in the 2nd set of the dead sea scrolls, written by the head of Qumran and consisted of 22 complaints that people have lost sight of what it means to be Jewish, written to Sadd and Phar.
Assyriology: the study of ancient Mesopotamian linguistics in Assyria.
War Scroll
War Scroll: found in the second batch of scrolls and laid the groundwork of what it meant to be a follower of God, battles won by sons of light.
broken pottery chips, broken potsherds with names or initials on them.
Hijra: marks beginning of Muslim calendar A.D.622, also the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina.
Baksheesh: workers get paid according to the value of the goods they deliver to their boss, used by Schleimann.
Egypt vs Mesopotamia
Egypt versus Mesopotamia: Egypt- had states rather than cities, more homogeneous and inward looking on society, cannot move when there are massive Nile floods (but Nile floods are more predictable), lots of desert on either side of the Nile. Mesopotamia- had states and cities both, was the world’s first superpower, less homogenous and more diverse than Egypt, flooding of Tigris and Euphrates slightly unpredictable, made it difficult to know when to plant crops.
Teosinte: a precursor to domesticated corn, Found at Gila Naquitz in Mexico.
Susa: site where the most important part of Hammurabi\'s Law Code was found, modern day Iran.
Canaan: Lebanon and Palestine territories, the Amarma Letters found in Ancient Egypt mention Canaan (Akkadian), modern day Israel.
Jericho: a city that the Israelites were supposed to destroy , but when they arrived, it was abandoned.
Judea: home of the Jews.
: dependant on rainfall, no floods, eastern Mediterranean Sea, border between Mesopotamia and Egypt, lesser power, north and south were mountains, small cities.
Schlieemann, originally thought to be location of Troy but it lacked ruins, modern day Turkey.
one of the first metropolis\', modern day Iraq.
: a triangular peninsula in Egypt, lies between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, forming a land bridge between Africa and Southwest Asia, Egyptians called it the \"Land of Fayrouz\" while their ancestors called it \"Dumafkat\".
The Siq at Petra
huge rock formation entrance to Petra
Schleimann found Troy at this location, modern Turkey.
began in Egyptian control, was taken over by the Philistines, mentioned in Armana letters, modern day Israel.
Tell el-Hayyat
archeological site excavated by Steven Falconer.
one of 5 ancient cities founded by the Philistines, destroyed by Nebuchanezzar, modern Israel.
founded by Phillistines (after taken from the Canaanites), thriving in the middle of the Bronze Age, modern day Israel.
home of the Sphinx and Great Pyraminds in Egypt.
Solomonic (first) temple
first temple built in Jerusalem, central place to worship
early city in Mesopotamia, smaller, important because it was a pilgrimage destination, ritual.
Herodian (second) temple
: built by Herod, first was known as King Soloman’s Temple, sacked by Roman emperor Tidus’ army.
Located middle of Egypt, pilgrimage center.
geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and Jordan River, the “Holy Land.”
Valley of the Kings
Burial place for the Egyptian pharaohs of the Old Kingdom.
capital and largest city of Israel
modern day Istanbul, Turkey
New Kingdom Egypt region where both Luxor and Karnak are found.
Politiko Troullia
associated with Cyprus and the Bronze Age
the ancient city of Thebes found in Upper (southern) Egypt, high social status and luxury.
hiding place of the Dead Sea Scrolls (provided much of the Old Testament).
San Jose Mogote
700-500B.C., emergence of village life, rivals with Monte Alban.
temple complex located near Luxor in Egypt, associated with the city of Thebes.
associated with the Jewish sect Zealots (Military activists fighting against the Romans).
Monte Alban
Mexico, 300B.C.-300A.D., huge increase in population, invention of tortilla.
City in lower egypt
Guila Naquitz
Mexico, 8000-6700B.C., origins or agriculture and teosinte.
Layard (originally had advised Botta to dig here), ancient Assyria, modern day Iraq.
Royal Cemetary at Ur
Wooley, death pits of Queen Puabi and King Abargi, buried with servants and portion of army, modern Iraq.
archeological site in Mexico, containing many large pre-Columbian pyramids.
live in the Levant, speak Canaanite (Semitic), similar to Mesopotamia in the east.
from city of Mecca in Arabia, prophet and founder of Muslim traditions.
two philosophies on when they arrived; through Egyptians and through Bronze Age.
arrived at the end of the Bronze Age around 1200BC (period of towns), Set up 5 new cities, Philipines, Isreal.
Egyptian named “Sea Peoples” that arrived in the Levant (modern Israel) at the end of the Bronze Age.
Heinrich Schliemann
Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, believed Homer\'s Iliad and Odyssey were truth.
of Jewish descent, hired by Romans to rule Judia as long as the people layed their taxes, and kept in line with Romans.
New base of Judaism in synagogues. More localized religion. Stars Judaism with Rabi
Legalistic, Orthodox Jews during the time of Christ. Governed much power in Jewish cities.
priestly class, political power, in charge or the temple in Jerusalem.
in charge of the Assyrian Empire, moved capital from Dur-Sharrukin to Ninevah.
a sect of Jews, in relation to the Zealots.
king of Babylonians, destroyed Solomonic temple/1st temple.
: political movement in first century Judaism which sought to incite the people of Judaea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the holy land by force of arms, most notably during the Great Jewish Revolt.
King David
second king of the United Kingdom of Israel according to the Bible, sets up temple in Jerusalem.
King Solomon
according to the Bible, a King of Israel. In the Qur\'an he is described as a Prophet. The biblical accounts identify Solomon as the son of David.
Frank Cross
notable for both his work in the interpretation of the Dead Sea Scrolls as well as his analysis of the Deuteronomistic History, head of Dead Sea Scroll scholars.
Flavius Silva
Roman general associated with the siege of Masada.
Flavius Josephus
survived and recorded the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70
JJ Winkelmann
librarian who made sense of findings in Herculaneum/Pompeii, founder of modern scientific archaeology.
discovered ancient Mesopotamia, Nimrud, original goal was to travel to Ceylon with Mitford.
ancient Pre-Columbian civilization living in south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco, flourished during 1400B.C.-400B.C. They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed. Among other \"firsts\", there is evidence that the Olmec practiced ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame.

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