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Philosophy Mid 2


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Who is "the father of modern philosophy"?
Rene Descartes
Rene Descartes was an "innatist". This means that he is also what else?
a Rationalist
"Meditation on First Philosophy" is written by whom? What was this persons reasoning in writing this?
Descartes He wanted to build from new foundations.
What does Descrtes explain in Meditation 1?
Descartes explains his method of doubt
The Enlightenment is also reffered to as what?
the "age of reason" 17th - 18th centuries
What was the force behind the American and French Revolutions?
the enlightenment
Who came up with Heliocentricity and what is Heliocentricity?
Coppernicus Heliocentricity is the theory that the planets revolve around the sun
What system disrupted the Ptolemaic system of astronomy?
Who proved that the orbits of the planets are elliptical?
Johannes Kepler
What was Kepler unable to do?
He was unable to come up with an effective model of the solar system.
X,Y,and Z can also be known as _______ _______ ?
cartesian coordinates
Who wrote "Principa Mathematica"? and what was it about?
It was Iassac Newton's treatise on gravitation
What was famous for its anticlericalism and devotion to science?
Encyclopedie (Encyclopedia)
What are the 5 methods of doubt?
methodological doubt metaphysical doubt (entity) hyperbolic (abstract) doubt readical (back to basics) doubt radical skeptocism
Who came up with "I think, therefore I am"
What does Descartes realize in Meditation 2?
that he can be absolutely certain of one thing - that he exists
What does Descartes try to prove in Meditation 3?
the existence of God
What are the objects of doubt?
sense perception (illusions and dreams) the components of dreams themselves mathematic truths
Cogito Ergo Sum means what?
I think, therefore I am
What are the 2 distinct substances of mind-body dualism?
thinking thing extended thing
What is "res cogitans"?
the thinking thing (person)
What is "res extensa"?
extended thing (body)
What is solipism?
"alone" "self" no reality outside of "my" mind
1) My body is divisible. 2) My minds - or myself, insofar as I am not a thinking thing - is not divisible. 3)So, my mind is distinct from my body. This is the _________ Argument for Dualism.
Who's law states this: if x=y, then x and y have the same properties
Leibniz's Law
Strong knowledge means what?
that you cannot be wrong
Weak knowledge means what?
that you don't have absolute certainty, but you have evidence
What is "physicalism" also known as?
materialism and __________ go hand-in-hand
What are the 5 characteristics of mind?
non-spatial, unobservable, non-physical, private, free
What are the 5 characteristics of body? (hint: opposite of mind)
spatial, observable, physical, public, determined
Who wrote "An Essay Concerning Human Understnading"?
John Locke
What are Locke's 2 kinds of identity?
"man" - human being "person" - thinking being
What is Diachronic Identity?
On what basis do we judge this individual now to be the same as that individual then?
What is Locke's "tabula rasa"?
a blank slate - Locke denies that we are born with any knowledge
John Locke was a _________ and an __________ ?
Dualist empiricist
_________ is the condition for personal identity.
Who wrote "Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man"?
Thomas Reid
What are the 2 identities of persons?
perfect identity and complete identity
What are the 2 indentities of material things?
imperfect identity and incomplete
What is the "metaphysical glue"?
memory + consciousness
Thomas Reid is part of what school of philosophy?

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