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Provide an academically acceptable definition of culture
Univesal human capacity to classify, codify, and communicated their experiences symbolically    
List five characteristics of culture
  • Learned
  • Shared
  • Patterned
  • Mutually Constructed
  • Symbolic
Describe learned characteristic of culture
Process of learning is called enculturation
Describe shared characteristic of culture
Shared by the members of society
Describe patterned characteristic of culture
Living and thinking in ways that form patterns
Describe mutually constructed characteristic of culture
Constructed through social interaction
Describe Symbolic characteristic of culture
Culture, thought, and language are based on symbols and symbolic meaning
What is meant by personal culture?
Each person has an individual culture to differentiate them from the group at large.
Aspects of personal culture
  • Age
  • Race
  • Ethnicity
  • Class
  • Gender
  • Religion
  • Political orientation
  • Sexual orientation
Describe onion model of culture  
The outer ring is the explicit culture. The next layer is the norms and values of the culture. In the core are the basic assumptions. Need to peel away the layers to get to the care
Describe iceberg model of culture
Above the water are the explicit, visible, tangible forms of culture. Beneath that is the implicit culture with its habits, assumptions, understandings, and values.
Hall's definition of intercultural conflict
About both parties not being able to read the unconscious cultural patterns. Cultural project or diverging cultural systems. White, low-context escalates by nonverbally, subtly, force, legality. High context its non-linear, brooding, anger as communicatio
Weaver's definition of intercultural conflict
Assumes there are cultural differences, out of since conversational styles. Whites ague in factual-inductive, blacks in affective-intuitive manner.
Explain monochronic USA culture
  • Linear
  • Focus on present and near-term future
  • Easy action chains
  • Time is tangible
  • Segmentation
Explain low context USA culture
  • Division of labor and knowledge
  • Verbal emphasis
  • High information need
  • Quantitative
  • Loose in/out group distinctions
  • Not face to face
Explain polychronic Japanese culture
  • Being through understanding person/enviroment
  • Time is valuable
  • Focus on past and long-term future
  • Comprehensive and circular thinking
  • Flow and rhythm
Explain high context Japanese culture
  • Holistic
  • Visual and nonverbal
  • Climate of agreement
  • Emphasis on group boundaries and hierarchy
  • Orderly process
  • Face-to-face
Define assimilation
Acculturation. The process in which members of a minority are absorbed into an established dominant host culture. This invovles losing several characteristics of the minority culture.
Define multiculturalism
Each individual belongs to/identifies with multiple with identity groups. Elements of these identities interact with each other but tend to maintain separate boundaries and adhere to their own values.
First paradox of class mobility; dichotomy
  • Class advantage feeds meritocracy
  • One Side: Merit has replaced inherited priviledge
  • Other side: Wealth, education, and connections cultivate habits rewarded by meritocracy. 
Second paradox of class mobility; dichotomy
  • Reality versus perception
  • One Side: Most believe in American dream
  • Most do not see, nor data indicates, a level playing field
Definition of interracial communication
Communication between whites and non-whites in the united state. Characterized by strain and tension resulting from dominant-submissive societal interpersonal relationships imposed on non-whites.
Implications of interracial communication for racial integration
  • Member of ethnic minority can never totally move within the realm of the majority
  • A member of the ethnic minority can move in its own realm and shared realm
  • Member of ethnic majority can never be a member of the ethnic minority
Meaning of abstractive/geselleschaft
  • Objective
  • Rational
  • Impersonal
  • Distrust
Meaning of associative/gemeinschaft
  • Emotional
  • Personal
  • Spontaneous
  • Trust
Difference between abstractive/geselleschaft and associative/gemeinschaft
  • Exemplified in importance of feeling, emotion, body language, and tone of voice in associative cultures
  • Assciative more exclusive
  • Abstractive allows for inclusion and advancement
According to Huntington, Stages of historical conflict
  1. Kingdoms and empires
  2. Tribes and regions
  3. Nation-states
  4. Ideologies
  5. Cultures
According to Huntington, reasons for cultural conflict
  • Differences are out of awareness and less mutable
  • Local identities(state) diminishing in importance
  • Religion fills the gap
  • Economic regionalism
  • Non-western assertion against the West
List 3 dimensions of culture
  • Individual vs community
  • Universalism vs particularism
  • Specific/low context vs Holistic/high context
Describe elements of Individual dimension
  • Use of 'I'
  • Decide by voting
  • Pay or performance
  • Skill & expertise
  • Competition
  • Self-interest
Describe elements of Community dimension
  • Decide by consensus
  • Use of 'we'
  • Team rewards
  • Conformism
  • Cooperation
  • Social concern
Compromise of individual vs community
  • Reward teams for individual creativity
  • Reward individuals for team work
Describe elements of Universalism dimension  
  • Systems
  • Standards & rules
  • Uniform procedues
  • Demand clarity
  • Generalizations
Descibe elements of Particularism dimension
  • Flexibility
  • Exceptions
  • 'It depends'
  • Passionate relationships
  • Circumstances
Compromise of universalism vs paricularism
  • Transnational centers of excellence
  • HQ's role is t disseminate information about best practices
Describe elements of Specific/Low context dimension
  • Open and direct
  • Analyzing
  • Easy Contact
  • Product/Price
  • Letter of contract
  • Selling/Profits
  • Ownership
Describe elements of Holistic/High context dimension
  • Polite and implicit
  • Connecting issues
  • Personal involvement
  • Process/Quality
  • Spirit of contract
  • Relationship/Customes
  • Stakeholders
Compromise of specific/low context vs holistic/high context
  • 50% of training focused on cost reduction
5 methods and attributes of Mandela
  • Principled diplomacy
  • Respect for differences
  • Soft Power
  • Negotiated with Apartheid without compromising any of my values
  • Restorative justice
Definition of Reconciliation    
Process of identifying then integrating the interests of parties to achieve joint benefit
2 Methods suggested by Pruitt for integrative agreements
  • Expanding the pie
  • Nonspecific compensation
Describe Expanding the pie  
  • Increase available resources
  • Best used when parties view others goals as blocking their own
  • Small information requirements
  • Fight for space to unload milk; expand platform
Describe Nonspecific compensation
  • One party gets that they want
  • Other is repaid in an unrelated coin
  • Doesn't deal with precise costs incurred by other parties
  • Need info about whats valuable to party
  • Need info about costs to other side
  • Gi

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