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Causes of Sectionalism and Westward Expansion


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Growth industry in New England, textiles
Industrial growth after teh War of 1812 - The US began to manufacture goods with the aid of factories and machines. New England, rather than the south, emerged as a manufacturing center
What did Eli Whitney do?
-He developed the cotton gin (short for "engine")
-could separate cotton from its seeds
-made cotton profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy
-reinforced importance of slavery in economy of South
Interchangable Parts
-Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus interchangeable
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people though he could make the American Dream come true.
-first non-aristocrat to be elected president
-elecion was the revolution of the "Common Man"
Age of the Common Man
-Jackson's presidency was called this
-felt common people should run gov't - democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and free press
-all white men could vote, incresed voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected
Spoils System
-"To the victor go teh spoils" - winner of elcection may do whatever they want with staff
-Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many peole and replacing them with his own
Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
-during winter of 1838
-1839, troos under Gen. Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in GA and moved them to OK Indian country
-many died on the trail
-known as "Trail of Tears"
South opposes protective tariffs (Tariff of Abominations)
South strongly opposed rotective tarifffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832
-protested by asserting that enforcement of tariffs could be prohibited by individual sales and by refusing to colllect tariff duties
Nullification Crisis, South Carolina Exposition and protest
-when faced with protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented theory in that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by inidivual states and refusing to collect tariff duties
Supreme Court: McCulloch v. Maryland
-upheld power of Congress to charter a bank as gov't agency
-denied state power to tax that agency
James K. Polk
-knwon for promoting Manifest Destiny
-annexd Texas
-fought Mexican American War gaining entire southwest
-threatened war w/ BR which gained US Oregon Territory
Mexcian War: causes
annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of US/Mexican relations in 1840s and particulary the provocation of US troops on the Rio Grande
Mexican War: results
-US captured Mexico City
-Zachary Taylor elected president
-Santa Ana abdicated
-Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, adn California to the US
Mexican Cession
Some of Mexico's terriory was added to US after mecian War: AZ, NM, CA, Utah, CO (Treaty of Gudalupe Hidalgo)
Gadsden Purchase
1835 - treaty would provide for purchase of terriorty thorugh which state lines ran, along which US hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad.
-makes up southern parts of Arizona and NM.
Cyrus McCormick, mechanical reaper
-built reaping machine in 1831
-part of industrial revolution
-allowed farmers to substantially increase acreage that could be worked by a single family, made corporate farming possible
Robert Fulton, steamships
-designed 1st steamboat, te Clermont in 1807
-also built the Nautilus, first practical submarine
-roots in North 1700s
-major issue in 1830s
-dominated politics after 1840
-Congress became battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830s the Civil War
different parts of country developing unique and separate cultures
William Lloyd Garrison
-militant abolitionist
-became editor of Boston Publication, The Liberator (1831)
Nat Turner's Insurrection 1831
slave uprising
group of 60 slaves led by Nat Turner -believed he was divine instrument sent to free his eople
-killed almost 60 Whites in South Hampton, VA
Frederick Douglass
(1817-1895) self-educated slave who escaped in 138
-became the best-known abolitionist speaker
-edited anti-slavery weekly, North Star
Compromise of 1850: provisions
-called for admission of CA (free) organiing utah and New Mexico without restrictions on slavery, adjustment of Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in D.C., tougher fugitive slae laws
-passage was hailed as solution to threat of national division
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 - repealed MO Compromise, established doctrine of congressional nonintervention in territories
-popular sovereignty determine slave or free
Birth of Republican party
coalition of Free Soil party, the Know-Nothing party, and renegade Whigs in 1854
-liberal, anti-slavery

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