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-opposite of egostic -individuals have no life of their own and, in fact, strive to blend in with the group to have a sense of being -ie. soldier
state brought on by dramatic changes
the major force that drives social change
Conflict Persepective
Focus on conflict as aninevitable fact of social life, brigns change 1. Who benefits from a particular pattern or social arrangement? 2. At whose expense? -draw inspiration from Karl Marx
accept goals and means
Deviance that breaks the laws of society and is punished by formal sanctions
Critiques of Functionalism
-defends existing arrangements -justifies exitense & status quo -doesn't explain social instability
Critiques of Symbolic Interaction
1. presences of symbolic interactionist can skew data
Critques of Conflict Theory
1. it overstates the tensions and divisions between dominant and subordnate groups and undrstates stability 2. assumes that the owners exploit the natural reources and cheap labor of poor countries at will and without resistance 3. neglect situations
Any Behavior or Physical appearance that is socially challenged and or condemned because it departs from the norms or expectations of a group
Double Consciousness
-sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of otheres, measuring ones soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity -"an american, a negro, two souls, two thoguhts, two unreconciled strivings..." -WEB DuBois
Durkheim- 4 types of problematic relationships
1. egoistic 2. altruistic 3. anomic 4. fatalistic
ties attaching the individual to others in the society are weak i.e. lives of chronically ill
Emile Durkheim
as society became industrialized, nature of ties that bound people to one another changed drastically, determined there is no situation that could not serve as an occasion for someone's suicide
Factors that Shape US and Chinese Socil Control System
1. chinese population 2. difference rooted in history-geographic separation, US has abundant resources 3. Chinese been through many wars, strict control restores order 4. economic philosophy towards capitalism
Fasley Accused
-have broken rules and not been caught -usually when well being of country is threatened, can cause with hunt
-opposite of anomic -describes a state in which there is no hope of change and thus oppresive discipline against where there is no release
Five Responses to Structural Strain
1. Conformity 2. Innovation 3. Ritualism 4. Retreatism 5. Rebellion
norms that apply to the details of life or routine matters ex. how we look, eat, greet one another
Formal Sanctions
Definite and systematic laws, conditions under which people rewarded or punished
Four Catagories of People (according to labeling theorists)
1. Conformists-have not violated 2. Pure Deviants-broekn rules, caught and punished 3. Master Status of Deviant- 4. Secret Deviants- broken rules, not caught
the contributino a part makes to order adn stability within that system
define society as a system of interrelated, interdependent parts, all parts of society contribute
Functions of Deviance
1. identifying wrong binds together members ofa group 2. useful in making changes
Hariet Marineau
-wrote Society in America
Informal Sanctions
Spontaneous, unofficial expressions of approval or disapproval, not backed by law
accept goals, reject means
a relatively stable and predictable arrangement among people that has emerged over time with the purpose of coordinating human interaction and behavior in ways that meet some social need
a matter than can be explained only by factors outside and individual's control and immediate environment
Labeling Theory
All social groups make rules and eenforce them, when enforced, the person who "broke" it is regarded as an outsider two assumptions
Latent Dysfunctions
unintended disruptions to order and stability
Latent Functions
-unintended/unanticipated effects on order and stability
Manifest Dysfunctions
a part's anticipated disruptions to order and stability
Manifest Function
a part's intended or anticipated effects on order and stability in teh larger society
Max Weber
recognized significance of economic and material conditions in shaping history, he did not believe, as marx did, that these conditions were the all important forces in history -sociologist's task to analyze and explain teh course and consequences of soci
means of production
the resources (lands, tools, equipment, factories, transporation, and labor) essential to the production and distribution of goods and services
norms that peple define as essential to the well being of their group or nation ex. rights in the US
Nature of Deviance
1. Almost any behavior or appearance can qualify as deviant under the right circumstance 2. Conceptions of deviances vary over time and place
Negative Sanction
An expression of disapproval for noncompliance
Positive Sanction
An expression of approval and a reward for compliance
full or partial rejection of both goals and means and introduction of new set of goals
reject goals and means
reject goals, accept means
reactions of approval and disapproval to other's behaviors and appearance
Scientific Method
1. define topic 2. Review literature 3. Identify and Define Core Concepts 4. Chosose a Research Design & data gathering strategies 5. Analyza Data 6. Draw Conclusions
social action classifications
1. traditional- goal is pursued because it was pursued in the past 2. affectional-goal is pursued in response to an emotion 3. value-rational-goal is pursued because it is valued and pursued with no thought of consequences 4. instrumental- goal is purs
social actions
actions that people take in response to others with emphsasis on the meanings that involved parties attach to their behavior
Social Control
Methods used to teach, persuade, or force a groups members and even nonmembers to comply ithand not deviate fro social norms and expectations
Social Facts
ideas, feeilngs, ways of behaving that posess the remarkable property of existing outside the consciousness of the individual"
Sociological Imagination
the ability to cnonect seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces to the most basic incidents of an individuals life. THe sociological imagination enables people to distinguish between personal troubles and public issues.
ties that bind people to one another in a society
Structural Strain Theory
Any situation in which 1. valued goals have unclear limits 2. people are unsure whether the legit means society provides will allow them to acheive goals 3. legit opprotunitiesfor meeting goals remain closed to significant portion of pop.
Any kind of phenomenon to which people assign a name, meaning, or value
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Everyday events in which two people communicate, interpret, and respond to each other's words and actions
personal needs problems, and difficulties that can be expalined in terms of individual short comings related to motivatin, attitude, ability, character, or judgement
Two Assumptions of Labeling Theory
1. rules are socially constructed 2. Rules are not enforced uniformly or consistently
WEB DuBois
-double consciousness -wrote Souls of Black Folk -Philidelphia Negro- wrote about popular ideas of race and reality

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