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psych ch. 11


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placing students in separate classes with others who share their level of aptitude scores
25 modern studies have revealed a _______ correlation between head size (relative to body size) and intelligence score. Newer studies reveal a more significant correlation of ____ between brain size and intelligence score.
slight positive 0.15; potitive 0.44
A creative environment - component of creativity
it sparks, supports, and refines creative ideas. creative people are mentored, challenged, and supported by their relationships with colleagues.
A venturesome personality - component of creativity
Tolerates ambiguity and risk, perseveres in overcoming obstacles, seeks new experiences rather than following the pack. Have a willingness to persist after failures.
Achievement test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Across many studies, the correlation score between intelligence and the speed of taking in perceptual information tends to be about __ to ___
+0.4 to +0.5 (those who percieve quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests)
Analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence
Assessed by intelligence test, which present well-defined problems having a single right answer
Aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
Aptitude tests tend to be highly ____ but they are weak ____ in life
reliable; predictors of success
Are high-scoring people (and groups) more likely to attain high levels of education and income?
Bornstein, Columbo, and Fagan's infant studies reveal:
2 to 7 month old babies who quickly grow bored with a picture (given a choice, prefer to look at a new one), score higher on tests of brain speed and intelligence up to 11 years later (predictions are a bit crude)
Content Validity
The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (i.e. driving test that samples driving tasks)
Creative intelligence
Demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
behavior (i.e. college grades) that a test (i.e. SAT) is designed to predict; the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity; an independent measure of what the test aims to assess
Did the Head Start project succeed?
It decreases the kid's likelihood of repeating a grade or being placed in special education; generally, aptitude benefits dissipate over time; can lead to small bosts to emotional intelligence - more motivated to do well in school
Do adopted children and their siblings, thanks to their shared environment, share similar aptitudes?
They have a moderate correlation
Do aisian students outperform north american students on math achievement and aptitude tests?
yes (robaby due to th fact that asiains attend shool 30% more days per year and spend more time studying math)
Do people who share the same genes also share comparable mental abilities?
Do racial groups differ in their average scores on intelligence tests?
yes (but it might be entirely environmental)
Down syndrome
A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosone in one's genetic makeup
Emotional Intelligence
Called by Salovey and Mayor; The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions; critical part of social intelligence
Eugenics moement
19th century movement that proposed measuring human traits and using the results to encourage or discourage people from reproducing
Expertise - component of creativity
Well-developed base of knowledge;
Factor analysis
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
Five components of creativity:
Expertise, Imaginative thinking skills, A venturesome personality, Intrinsic motivation, & a creative environment
Flynn Effect
Average intelligence test performances are rising since 1910; cause unknown but may be due to increasing schooling over the years
Supports Thurstone that intelligence comes in different packages; studied savants & concluded that we have multiple intelligences, each relatively independent of each other
Gender differences in math:
girls and boys have similar math averages, but more males are at the highest extreme
Gender differences:
girls are better spellers, girls are more verbally fluent (sensitive to touch, odor, taste), there are more boys in low extremes of intelligence, boys talk later and stutter more
General intelligence (g factor)
A general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by eery task on an intelligence test
The extent to which differences among people are attributable to genese; never pertains to an individual
High reliability (consistency) does not ensure a test's _____
Hunt's findings (trained caregivers to be more responsive and teaching-ish to babies) testify to the importance of ____
Imaginative thinking skills - component of creativity
Provides the ability to see things in new ways, to recognize patterns, to make connections;
In extreme cases, brain damage may diminish ____ intelligence but leave ____ intelligence intact.
emotional; academic
Individual differences within a race are ____ than differences between races
much greater
The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
intelligence quotient (IQ)
a person's mental age divided by chronoligcal age times 100. (i.e. an average child would have IQ 100); made by William Stern.
Intelligence Tests
Tests for assessing a person's mental abilities and comparing them with the abilities of other people, by means of numerical scores
Intrinsic motivation - component of creativity
creative people are not as motivated by external motivators (deadlines, impressing others, money) - more about pleasure and challenge of the work.
Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso's Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)
To asses both overall emotional intelligence and its 3 components that asses the person's ability to perceive emotions, understand emotions, and regulate emotions.
Genius association; top 2% of people
Mental age
the chronological age typical of a given level of performance; devised by Binet
Mental retardation
A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound; only about 1% of america; males outnumber females by 50%
Mild intellience
IQ 50-70, 85% of retarded people, can learn up to 6th grade level; adults can achieve self-supporting social and vocational skills (with help)
Moderate intelligence
IQ 35-49; 10% of retarded people; can go up to 2nd grade level; adults can contribute to their own support by laboring in sheltered workshops
Normal Curve
The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes; 68% IQ 85-115, 96% IQ 70-130
Practical intelligence
Often required for everyday tasks, often ill-defined, with multiple solutions
Predictive Validity (Criterion-related validity)
Success with which a test predicts the bheavior it is designed to predict; assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
Profound intelligence
IQ below 20; 1-2% of retarded people; require constant aid and supervision
Project Head Start 1965
US govt-funded preschool program started by Hunt's 'Intelligence and Experience' book; most kids come from families below family level; aims to enhance kid's chances for success in school and beyond; boost cognitive and social skills
An error when someone views an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing
The extent to which a test yield consistent results; assessed by consistency of scores on two halves of the test, alternative forms of the test, retesting
Savant syndrome
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing; many have autism, abou 4 in 5 savants are males
Schooling Effect
Higher schooling leads to higher intelligence; intelligence rises over the school year and tends to drop in the summer
Severe intelligence
IQ 20-34; 3-4% of retarded people; can learn to talk and perform simple work tasks under close supervision but are generally unable to profit from vocational training
Social intelligence
First used by Cantor and Kihlstrom; The know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing onself successfully
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group"
the widely used American revision (by Terman) of Binet's original intelligence test
Stereotype threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evalutated based on a negative stereotype
Sternberg and Wagner's test of practical managerial intelligence measures:
whether the person knows how to write effective memos, how to motivate people, when to delegate tasks and responsibilities, how to read people, and how to promote their own careers
Sternberg's 3 aspects of intelligence:
Analytical (academic problem-solving), creative, and practical
Studies of intelligence and creativity suggest that a certain level of _____ is necessary but not sufficient for creativity.
aptitude (In general, people who do well on intelligence tests also do well on creativity tests)
Studies show that highly intelligent people tend to have more _____, to take in information more quickly, and to show faster brain-wave responses to simple stimuli such as a flsh of light.
brain synpases
Tests on infants: less than ___ years old can predict aptitudes minimally, at age ___ intelligence test scores stabilize (but aren't fixed)
3; 7
The difference between normal and "enriched" environments matters ___
very little
The High extreme of intelligence:
gifted kids are healthy, adjusted and unusually successful academically; people with higher IQs tend to pursue further education 50x more than average; intelligence/giftedness is more than a single quality
The original IQ formula works fairly well for ___ but not for ____.
children; adults
Found that there is a little evidence of a g factor; gave 56 diff tests to people and mathematiacally identified 8 clusters of "primary mental abilities"; saw small tendency for one to excel in one of 8 to score well on others
To be widely accepted, psychological tests must meet 3 criteria:
they must be standardized, reliable, and valid.
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
We can never say what percentage of an individual's intelligence is _____
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
made by Wechsler; most widely used intelligence tests; consists of 11 subtests; gives overall intelligence score and separate verban and performance (nonverbal) scores
What did Alfred Binet do?
Him and Simon decided to develop an objective test to identify children likely to have difficulty in the regular classes. Began that all kids start same but some develop more rapdily. Set out to measure a child's mental age
What did Lewis Terman do?
Revised Binet's test from Paris-ish to California-ish. He called it the Stanford-Binet.
When the US govt tested new immigrants and 1.7 million WWI army recuirts, the poor results were seen as:
those people were inferior because they didn't share their Anglo-Saxon heritage
With ___, genetic influences become more apparent.
____ believed that the use of IQ tests would "ultimately result in curtailing the reproduction of feeble-mindedness and in the elimination of an enormous amount of crime, pauperism, and industrial inefficiency."

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