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Media Effects


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Abstract evaluation
Abstract Modeling
applying what has been learned in the past to new and different situations
adaptor categories
the classifications of individuals within a social system on the basis of innovativeness
Advantageous comparison
comparing ones own actions to more serious or flagrant transgressions of others
Agenda building
the media collects information from the public, the media and the public build off each other, what the public reacts to most is what the media will build on.
abstract evaluation of an object. evaluating other people, objects, and issues favorably or unfavorably
advanced the social learning theory.
Causal Link
viewing of media violence and increase in aggressive behavior.
Central route
requires much cognitive effort on the part of the audience member in order to judge the merit of the advocated position or persuasive message
Character Identification
people who think of themselves as who they are watching and brings out own feelings
Cohesive groups such as immediate family, close friends
Cognitive Dissonance
occurs when attitude and action become inconsistent with one another
Cognitive neoassociation
explains a portion of the memory
Cognitive response theory
an audience member does not yield to a new attitude after simply learning a new message.
precise definitions of major concepts in a theory
Correlation of environmental parts
allows audience members to form a more accurate view of the world around them
Critical Mass
the point when adoption of an idea takes place, when the greatest amount of people adopt it,
Cultivation Hypothesis
heavy viewers of tv develop views of the world similar to that on tv. (tv's influence on viewers)
Cultural Indicators Project
Media violence research project, headed by Gerbner
person is divested of human qualities and considered no better than a beast.
Diffusion of Innovation
an idea spreads throughout society in a predictable pattern
Diffusion of Responsibility
acts within a group and does not feel personally responsible for the act
the process by which an idea is communicated though certain channels over time 
Dis inhibitory effects
lifting previous learned internal restraints on behaviors
Displacement of Responsibility
someone in authority directs a person to act in a certain way
disregard/distorition of the consequences of action
a person performs an act without thinking about the harm that act may cause, or the belief that it will only cause minimal harm.
Early Adaptors
Local, like to try new ideas, seen as leaders
Early majority
do not wish to be first to adopt ideas, wait to see if idea is legit
Elaboration Likelihood Model
explains the process of persuasion by identifying the likelihood of a person to elaborate cognitively or think very carefully about a persuasive message
very important in formation and change of attitudes
Enactive Mode
a person assesses the agreement between thoughts and the results of actions
Euphemistic Labeling
camouflaging bad conduct causing it to seem respectable or acceptable
Expectancy value model
examines the use of the media in terms of the gratifications sought and obtained in addition to the outcomes that are expected at the onset
control over flow of news information by media professionals
Gratification seeking and audience activity model
effects on the viewers thoughts, emotions, or behavior depend on involvement with the message and behavioral intentions of the viewer
studied the effects of training films on the attitudes of american soldiers during world war 2
Inhibitory effects
refraining from acting in a previously learned way
an idea
venturesome and ready to try new things
independent variables, include the source, the message, the recipient, the channel and the context of the presentation of message.
Institutional process analysis
examines the production, management and distribution of media messages
Intervening variables
variables that strengthen the cause-effect phenomenon when they are present
"The Effects of Mass Comm." New approach to research emphasizing particular factors that limited the effects of mass media messages on individuals.
Knowledge gap hypothesis
Higher socioeconomic status tend to acquire information at a faster rate than the lower status segments.
the last to adopt
5 question model (who, what, where, when, why)
Late Majority
skeptical and cautious, waits until most of the community has adopted ideas
effects of radio and introduced the notion that interpersonal communication was an important mediating factor in certain mass media effects.
Linear Models
Depict the communication process as a series of progressive, linear steps in the transmission of ideas from one person to another. 
Logical mode
verification by using previously acquired rules of inference
assumes that dominant sets of attitudes, beliefs, values and practices exist within cultures
the process of information processing and triggering pathways thought the mind network
Message system analysis
involves the investigation of images in portrayal of minorities
behavior reenactment
Moral Justification
believing that ones actions are serving some moral noble or higher purpose and are justified
Motor reproduction
physically doing what has already been done
patterns thought to influence viewers perceptions of the world
Observational Learning
watching other peoples actions, the consequences of those actions, and learning from what has been observed. 
Opinion Leadership
influenced their less knowledgeable neighbors to adopt an idea
dependent variables, fall under the control of the individual audience members
Payne Fund Studies
studied the effects of movies on youth
Perceived Justifiability
belief that what happens on television or in movies could also happen to them if they act in similar ways.
Perceived Meaning
how one sees the actions or intentions of others
Perceived reality
believing one is witnessing an actual event
Peripheral route
does not involve considerable cognitive effort
examines the process of attitude change in audience members and the modification of behavior based upon attitude change
Persuasory Mode
how easily one can be convinced to change or buy
research based upon the psychological principles of information processing by means of cognitive components.
Prior Learning/remembered experiences
while viewing an act, one remembers other similar personal events which evokes thoughts and feelings
exists in addition to the actual environment and people react to the pseudo-environment that the media creates
message content is connected or associated by relating thoughts and concepts that brings to mind
occurs when real world events support the distorted image of reality shown on tv
importance placed on a particular issue
belief in one's own ability
Self-regulated / self-directed
evaluating ones own behavior and respond accordingly
having thoughts with meanings similar to what they are viewing
variables must occur in the order listed in order to have persuasive effects
Social and Psychological factors
ones reaction to the information depends on individual personality, social circumstances, psychological disposition...
Social Cognitive Theory
the mental process at work whenever a person learns.
Social construction of reality
heavy viewing of television tends to shape ones perceptions and beliefs so that they are more in line with the world portrayed on tv than the real world
Social Learning Theory
explains behavior by examining how cognitive, behavioral and environmental factors interact.
Social Prompting
a person is offered and incentive to act in a perticular way that has already been learned.
related thoughts or memories become permanently associated with the message content
Storage Battery
importance of frequently primed concepts.
Storage Bin
memory is viewed as a large storage bin in which recently primed concepts are considered strongest. new concepts stacked on old concepts.
Surveying the environment
media keeps viewers aware of whats going on in the world
Symbolic interaction
shared meaning through language
Symbolic world
different from objective reality
Synapse View model
How often you bring something up = stronger memory over time
Third person effects
concern for others rather than self
the giving and receiving of information
Transactional model
the characteristics of the message and the psychological orientation of the audience member
Transmit social norms and customs
sending messages to new generations of viewers
Triadic Reciprocal Causation
Thought and behavior are determined by three different factors that interact and influence each other with variable strength 1. behavior 2. personal characteristics 3. environmental factors or events
Two-step flow
media messages influenced opinion leaders who in turn influenced others in the community via interpersonal communication
Use of experts
example of the peripheral route
Uses and dependency model
certain elements in a media system cause people to use and depend upon the media
Uses and gratifications
a persons social and psychological makeup is as responsible for producing certain effects as the media messages themselves
Vicarious Mode
observation of anothers experiences and the outcomes of those experiences serve to confirm or refute the veracity of thoughts
World Mean Index
used to measure peoples perceptions about violence and aggression in the world

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